Leadership

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Our 4-H leaders are an important part of 4-H's success. The 4-H Organizational Leader's purpose is to guide the organization of the club and to help it function and maintain smoothly while maintaining communication with everyone involved. The 4-H Project Leader's purpose is to work with the 4-H members enrolled in specific projects and assist them to plan and carry out experiences that will help them reach their goals. The 4-H Project Leader and Organizational Leader also supports the positive growth and development of each youth while the Leaders develop important life skills and create opportunities for youth to learn, lead, and serve. 

Resources may be needed to help you in serving your 4-H members. You will find those resources in links below. If there are resources you need and cannot find, please contact the Extension office and request those materials.

 Documents on this page:

  1. Montana 4-H Voumnteer Quickstar Guide Link
  2. Being a 4-H Leader
  3. New Leader Checklist
  4. All Activities Sign-in Form (including 4-H meetings)Volunteers are the heart of 4-H image
  5. 4-H Fundraiser Form
  6. 4-H Record Sheets Check-off List
  7. 4-H Record Sheet/Book Completion Guidelines
  8. 4-H Leader's Handbook
  9. Parliamentary Practices
  10. Year-end Financial Summary Form
  11. 4-H Club Annual Program Plan

Montana 4-H Volunteer Quickstart Guide: 

https://www.flipsnack.com/Montana4Hinfo/montana-4-h-volunteer-quickstart-guide.html

Printable version of Being a 4-H Leader (PDF)

Being a 4-H Leader

A guide to lead your 4-H Club

4-H Clover

  • Head: Learning to think, making decisions, understanding “why”; gaining new and valuable insights and acquiring knowledge.
  • Heart: Being concerned with the welfare of others, determining values of attitudes by which to live, and learning how to work with others.
  • Hands: Learning new skills, improving skills already developed, instilling pride in work, and earning respect of work accomplished.
  • Health: Practicing healthful living, protecting the wellbeing of self and others, and making constructive use of leisure time.

4-H Leaders’ Creed

  • The 4-H member is more important than the 4-H project.
  • 4-H members should be their own best exhibit.
  • No award is worth sacrificing the reputation of a member or a leader.
  • Competition should be given no more emphasis than other fundamentals of 4-H work.
  • Enthusiasm is caught, not taught.
  • To learn by doing is fundamental in any sound educational program and is characteristic of the 4-H program.
  • Generally speaking, there is more than one good way to do most things.
  • Every 4-H member needs to be noticed, to feel important, to win and be praised. (Volunteers too!)
  • Our job as a 4-H volunteer is to teach 4-H members how to think, not what to think.

Organizational Leader

Purpose: Guide the organization of the club, help it function and maintain smoothly, maintain communication with everyone involved. Support the positive growth and development of each youth. Develop important life skills and create opportunities for youth to learn, lead, and serve.

Responsibilities:

  • Complete certification process for 4-H leaders.
  • Help members select projects
  • Turn in enrollment forms to the Extension office in a timely manner.
  • Help club officers prepare meeting agendas, learn leadership skills, and carry out their other duties.
  • Help club members set annual goals and plan the yearly program of activities.
  • Provide resource materials for members and leaders.
  • Conduct group activities and events with risk management plans for each.
  • Share activity information with club members and parents.
  • Maintain regular and timely contact with the Extension staff.
  • Attend training and keep up-to-date on county and state events.
  • Report enrollment and other requests to the Extension office.
  • Help other club leaders plan and implement learning experiences with members and families.
  • Assist youth in recognizing other volunteers and supporters of the club.

Project Leader

Purpose: Work with members enrolled in a specific project, assist them to plan and carry out experiences that will help them reach their goals. Support the positive growth and development of each youth. Develop important life skills and create opportunities for youth to learn, lead, and serve.

Responsibilities:

  • Complete certification process for 4-H leaders
  • Become familiar with project materials and share knowledge of the project.
  • Assist with enrollment by introducing the project to all members and parents.
  • Help members establish goals and plan their project work.
  • Conduct project meetings and workshops.
  • Give support to members in planning and carrying out projects as needed.
  • Encourage parents to support project work at home.
  • Help members identify resource materials to expand learning.
  • Assist members with exhibits, demonstrations and other sharing activities.
  • Provide member recognition for project accomplishments.
  • Help members complete activity guides and record books to elevate their progress on projects.
  • Keep members informed of other opportunities related to projects.
  • Be aware of risks and use of risk management strategies related to project work.
  • Update your own project skills by attending relevant training.
  • Assist with other project related activities on the county and state level.
  • Help identify, select and support new volunteers.

Activity Leader

Purpose: Work with members in planning and carrying out specific activities for the club while supporting the positive growth and development of each youth involved.

Responsibilities:

  • Complete certification for 4-H leaders.
  • Provide leadership to 4-H members organizing the activity.
  • Assist members in selecting age/developmentally appropriate activities.
  • Provide activity resources.
  • Coordinate all aspects of the activity including effectively delegating responsibilities.
  • Assist members in reflection on the development of life skills through the activity.
  • Identify and manage risk.
  • Recruit other volunteers and plan for supervision.
  • Communicate regularly with other leaders and volunteers.
  • Coordinate activity scheduling with club and the Extension office.
  • Help identify, select and support new volunteers.
  • Support projects that may relate to the assigned activity.
  • Encourage/facilitate participation in related activities on the county and state level.
  • Celebrate the successful completion of the activity.

4-H Meetings

  • Meeting Place: Set a meeting place and time to start. This could depend on the size of your club, how much room you will need for your projects and activities, and if there are special need of any of your members.
  • Seating: this could make a difference on how members interact and or become involved.
  • Time/Length: Opening & Business should last 15-20 minutes, project/activity time should last 30-40 minutes, recreation & refreshments should last 15-20 minutes. Therefore, your meetings shouldn’t last longer than one hour and 20 minutes.

Resource Materials

  • Leader’s Handbook
  • Getting Started as a Project Leader
  • Clover
  • Councils and Committees
  • Parliamentary Practices
  • President and VP Handbook
  • Treasurer Training for 4-H Club
  • Secretary Handbook
  • Reporter Handbook
  • Historian Handbook
  • New Family 4-H Handbook
  • Club Leader Access Information Online
  • New Family Enrollment
  • Re-enrollment for Families

Printable version of New Leader Checklist (PDF)

New Leader Checklist

 

Every Event turn in meeting sign-in sheets for every meeting and event through-out the year to the Extension office. (The sign-in sheet should include name, gender, and youth or adult.)

 

Monthly turn in meeting minutes to the Extension office.

 

Monthly Turn in Treasury Reports to the Extension office.

 

Monthly Turn in Bank Statements to the Extension office.

 

Through-out the year inform your club of upcoming events/activities.

 

Regularly check your mailbox at the Extension office for information not included elsewhere.

 

By October 1stpick up your club’s enrollment packets from the Extension office.

 

By October 30th turn in to the Extension office your club’s Year-end Financial Summary. (The beginning balance needs to be the same as last year’s ending balance.)

 

By November 1st turn in to the Extension office a list of members that completed their record sheets/books for their projects.

 

By November 30th turn in a Yearly Club Calendar to the Extension office.

 

First club meeting of the 4-H year elect new officers’ according to your club’s by-laws.

 

By December 1st report to the Extension office a list of your club officers.

 

By December 31st turn in club re-enrollment to the Extension office. (New enrollment continues all year.) Payment must be received for enrollments to be entered/accepted.

 

Within 7 days of ear tagging and weigh-in turn in market ear tag forms to the Extension office.

 

Prior to the newsletter being published provide to the Extension office any information you want included in the newsletter.

 

April and by the end of May collect from your club’s market members the Livestock Commitment form and keep for your records.

 

By June 1st turn in completed Horse Cards to the Extension office.

 

Until August 1st member projects may be added and subtracted to.

 

By August 1stturn in all Drug Withdrawal/Commitment to Excellence forms to the Extension office.

 

By August 1st make sure your club members that are going to exhibit at the Fair register for the fair online at http://nwmtfair.com/fairbook/ .

 

In September attend and decorate a table for your club at the Awards Banquet.

Printable version of All Activities Sign-in Form (including 4-H meetings) (PDF)

All Activities Sign-in Form

Activity_______________________________   Date ____________

 

Location_____________________

 

 

Name

(first & last – please sign legibly)

Male or Female?

(M or F)

Youth or Adult?

(Y or A)

Contact Information

(please complete if you’re new to 4-H or if you have updated info)

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Printable version of 4-H Fundraiser Form (PDF)

4-H Fundraiser Form

Request must be submitted to Extension Office two weeks prior to fundraising activities

Date Received

Date Approved

 

Person(s) making request:                                                                                                                                         Phone: Event Start Date:                                                                             Event End Date:

Name of Activity/Event:

 

Description (include educational purpose, who will benefit from this 4-H event, activity, or fundraising):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Location:

 

What will funds/awards be used for:

 

 

 

 

 

Destination of event proceeds:

Club Account

$

 

4-H Council

$

 

Other

$

 

Permission and Release Forms will be needed for any non 4-H participants. (EX Open horse show Permission/Release Form must be signed for non 4-H participants.) Permission/Release Forms are available at the Extension Office.   Person responsible must have form prior to event and it must be attached to this form after the event.

 

Completed form must be returned 2 weeks after completion of 4-H event/activity/fundraiser event.

 

Due Date:

 

  • National/State Policy: All fundraising or use of the 4-H emblem may only be used with approval and is restricted to being used for 4-H educational events or activities.   No use of funds can be utilized for a private individual or cause. This approval allows the event or activity to use the 4-H name and emblem. Any trophies or ribbons must contain the 4-H emblem.   For additional information, see State 4-H Treasure Handbook.

 

 

Expenses: (supplies, rentals, meals, equipment, insurance, mileage—itemize all costs and include copies of all receipts) attach additional pages if needed.

Amount ($) Item Description

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total ($):

 

Income: (Itemize registration fees, entry fees, donations—Include copies of deposit slips or receipts) Amount ($)             Item Description

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total ($):

 

 

 

List all 4-H members, leaders and or parents that have or will participate or benefit from this event/activity/ or fundraiser: (attach additional pages if necessary.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Signature of MSU Extension Agent Approving                     Signature of Requestor

 

 

Return form to:

MSU/Flathead County Extension

1108 South Main St., Kalispell

MT 59901 or by email to

extension@flathead.mt.gov

 

The programs of the MSU Extension Service are available to all people regardless of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. Issued in furtherance of cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Jeff Bader, Extension Service Director, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717.

Printable version of 4-H Record Sheets Check-off List (PDF)

4-H Records Sheet Check-off List 

As a 4-H organizational or project leader, you have an important responsibility. Your job, as a record book review committee, is to check each record book turned in for completeness. Please remember not to judge the record on quality. Record books are not used as a sole documentation for project award selections. Members are granted project awards through an interview process as well as their record books, if they choose to apply.

As a member of the record book committee, you simply need to check each record book to determine whether it has met the minimum qualifications for being “Complete”. If the record book is not complete, each member has up to one month to work again on his/her records and bring them up to the minimum standards for completeness. Please note where the child needs to “fix” their record so that they are aware of the mistake(s) that needs to be corrected.  

Every completed record book should be affixed with a “Gold Seal of Excellence” sticker or similar recognition. These stickers are available through the Extension Office.

 

Criteria for a Completed 4-H Record

 

____ Enrolled in and completed at least one project in the current 4-H year.

 

____ Record books should include a “My 4-H Year” record, a “Project and Financial Journal” for each project enrolled, and an “Animal Record” for each animal project enrolled in. Other items, such as ribbons, photos, etc. are encouraged.

 

____ All sections in the “My 4-H Year” form should be completed. There must be at least three goals listed. A member must include at least three learning activities during their 4-H year, such as,  demonstrations, speeches, community service projects, judging events, or other public presentations. The member should also list any awards that they have received in both 4-H and other.

 

____ A completed “Project and Financial Journal” should be included for each project the member is enrolled in. This includes three goals for each journal, at least two items in “What I did, What I  
learned” section, and at least one item in the income/expense section of the record.

 

____ If an animal is owned, then an Animal Journal should be included. This record should have at least three goals listed. There should also be at least two items of “What I did, What I learned.” All other items should be filled out based on applicability (example: a dog does not have a sale record.)

 

____ A project work book should be attached for each project. (There are several projects that do not require workbooks including arts and crafts, shooting sports, etc. Please call the Extension Office if you are unsure about project workbook requirements.) Refer to the beginning of each book to see how many projects are required to be considered complete for the year. Most books list either 6 or 7 activities.  

 

 

It’s truly a fairly simple process. We encourage you, as a member of the record book committee to note positive comments on the “My 4-H Year” journal if a record is complete. Don’t forget to sign the record and attach the Gold Seal! Thank you for your dedication to the program.

 4-H RECORD BOOK COMPLETION FORM v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);}

4-H RECORD BOOK COMPLETION FORM

 

Name:                                                                         Club:                                                                                      

 

 

Complete

Incomplete

Comments

My 4-H Year (Green sheet)1

 

 

 

Record Book submitted by Oct. 1st

 

 

 

List 3 goals

 

 

 

Must be signed

 

 

 

All sections filled in

 

 

 

Club & Project Meeting participation

 

 

 

Committees and Office Summary

 

 

 

Promotional presentations

 

 

 

Communications activities

 

 

 

Awards and Honors

 

 

 

Activities, Events & Experiences Journal

 

 

 

 

Project / Financial Journal: (Blue Sheet) List each 4-H Member’s activities in the left hand column

Project in which Member was enrolled

List 3 goals

What I did / learned

Non-animal financial journal

Book complete2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1On these items, all you are doing is checking to see if these are complete, you are not judging the prettiness, the neatness, the quality of the book, just completeness.

 

2To get a “complete” sticker, Member must complete ⅔ of the projects you were enrolled in on June 1st.   (some require 3, some require 7).

 

Animal Record: (Orange Sheet) List each 4-H Member’s activities in the left column and check to see if the member completed the sections listed. Any incomplete can be marked with an “I” or left blank until the member has attempted to complete it on or before October 24th.

Animal Project

Value of animals

Feed record

Market animal growth record

Sales record

Expenses other than feed

Health care chart

Project summary

Production record

Signature

Book complete

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Completed Record Book Checklist

Yes

No

Identify and achieve at least 3 goals for the MY 4-H YEAR (green sheet).

 

 

Complete all sections of the green sheet (My 4-H Year) journal form. (All Yes’ must be checked to be given a completion.)

 

 

Book submitted with completed green sheet, project & financial journal & animal journal (if animal was used).

 

 

Project journal for at least ⅔ of the projects in which member was enrolled is complete.

 

 

Each project needs to have 3 goals listed on the project journal.

 

 

Project books requiring 7 completed activities must complete 7. Books that do not require the 7 completed activities must set project goals and complete at least 3 or follow the guidelines in the project book.

 

 

 

Gold Seal Check List3 ~ In addition to a completion above, the member must also

Yes

No

Project journal for each project in which member was enrolled is completed.

 

 

Must participate in at least 3 additional learning activities and record them in journal.

 

 

If animal is used, keep records for the animal in the animal journal.

 

 

Include the project books for all projects. Project books that require 7 completed activities must complete 7. Books that do not require the 7 completed activities must set project goals and complete at least 3 or follow the guidelines in the project book.

 

 

 

General Comments:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Reader’s Signature:                                                                                                     Date:                                                  

3To compete for a county award, a member must have a gold seal on the record book!

Printable version of 4-H Record Sheet/Bood Completion Guidelines (PDF)

4-H Record Sheet/Book Completion Guidelines

 

Flathead County 4-H Record Book Completion Guidelines

All record books need to be turned-in to clubs as close to October 1 as possible. If a record is not complete, each member has until October 25 to work again on his/her record and bring it up to the minimum standards for completeness. Clubs must turn in the member completion list to the County Extension Office by November 1. They need to indicate the gold seal record books on the form.

 

As a person checking the book in a club, your job is simply to review each book to determine whether it has met the minimum qualifications for being “COMPLETE”. You are not judging the quality of the book. The use of different colored ink and handwriting do not count as deductions. Participating in fair does not mean it is complete. Members do not have to participate in the fair.

 

Completed Record Book – This is a recommended qualification to receive a “completed”.

  • Complete records for at least 2/3 of the projects you are enrolled in on June 1 of the 4-H year. Example – 2 of 3 projects must be completed, 3 of 5 projects must be completed, 5 of 9 projects must be completed.
  • Identify and achieve at least three goals for the 4-H year on “My 4-H Year”
  • Submit your book which includes, as a minimum, the completed “My 4-H Year”, followed by the project/financial journal, and if an animal is used as a project, the animal journal. You should include other things to personalize your book (e.g. photos, articles, ribbons, memorabilia) The project books that require 7 completed activities must complete 7. Books that do not require the 7 completed activities need to follow the guidelines written in the book. Horse books must be complete. If no guidelines are written you must set project goals and complete at least 3 project goals for the project to be considered complete. One Project/Financial Journal can be used if the same animal is used in more than 1 project. Example – breeding and market swine, 1 horse in the ranch and rodeo project.
  • Include the project book from the completed project
  • Each project needs to have 3 goals listed on the project journal
  • Complete all sections of “My 4-H Year” journal form

 

Gold Seal Record Book – Gold Seals are awarded at the club level.

  • Complete the project/financial journal for each project in which you are enrolled
  • Participate in at least three additional learning activities during the 4-H year and record them in your journal (e.g. speeches, demonstrations, judging, public presentations, fair interview judging, 4-H promotion, teen leadership, etc.)
  • To compete for county awards a member must have a gold seal on your record book. Anyone can be nominated for county awards but must have a gold seal to compete for county award.
  • If an animal is used as a project, keep records for the animal on the animal journal
  • Include the project books for all projects. The project books that require 7 completed activities must complete 7. Books that do not require the 7 completed activities need to follow the guidelines written in the book. Horse books must be complete. If no guidelines’ are written you must set project goals and complete at least 3 project goals for the project to be considered complete.
  • Identify and achieve at least three goals for the 4-H year on “My 4-H Year”
  • Submit your book which includes, as a minimum, the completed “My 4-H Year”, followed by the project/financial journal for each project, and the animal journal for every animal owned.   You should include other things to personalize your book (e.g. photos, articles, ribbons, memorabilia).
  • Each project needs to have 3 goals listed on the project journal
  • Complete all sections of “My 4-H Year” journal form.

PROJECT RECORD SHEETS

(All record sheets are available at http://msuextension.org/flathead/flathead4h.html scroll toward the bottom.)

My 4-H Year

            The front page must be completed including three goals and leader’s signature. Every section must have something listed, including promotion and communication.   If nothing was done in an area or section of a record sheet, write “none”. You should have a project sheet (blue) for every project listed on the green sheet. A picture including you should be included.

Non- Animal Project and Financial Journal

Project/financial journals are needed for every project. Project sheets need to contain the name of the project and the year these records were kept. Every section needs to have something written in it, including three goals and financial records. Financial totals need to be transferred to the back page to be complete. Financial totals for animal projects should also be listed on the animal sheet. One Project/Financial Journal can be used if the same animal is used in more than 1 project. Example – breeding and market swine, 1 horse in the ranch and rodeo project.

Animal Record and Journal

            Animal sheets need to be included for every livestock project, including cat, dog and pocket pet. They are for all animal projects, not just market projects. Animal records need to include the animal category (e.g. beef, dog, etc.), the member’s name and the year these records were kept. Every section needs to be written in (if nothing applies, write “none”), and the back page needs to have the leader’s signature

DEADLINES

Club record book recommended deadline - Oct. 1 – clubs can make this deadline earlier.

County record book deadline – Organizational Leader turn in completed form – Nov. 1

Awards available to pick up at the Extension Office - Nov. 15

Check the project completion list if you have questions about project completion.

  • Updated 3/17

Printable version of 4-H Leader's Handbook (PDF)

4-H Leader's Handbook

Montana 4-HLeader’s Handbook 

4-H 5271 Revised September 2012

Montana 4-H is a part of Montana State University Extension which is a part of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and your local county government. 4-H members are youth who chose to participate in Extension sponsored educational programs which are open to all youth.

The goal of Montana 4-H is to develop life skills and edu­cate youth and adults for living in a global and changing world by using the resources of the Land-Grant Universi­ties and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Montana 4-H Educational programs include 4-H Clubs, after-school programs, 4-H camps, school enrichment, community service, and other events and activities for young people and adults as they work towards attaining life skills such as:

  • Fostering positive self-concept
  • Learning decision-making skills and taking responsibility for choices
  • Developing an inquiring mind
  • Relating to self and others
  • Acquiring a concern for communities – bothlocal and global

The emblem of the 4-H program is a green four-leaf clover with a white H in each leaf. The four H’s stand for Head, Heart, Hands, and Health and represent the development of life skills.

HEAD: Learning to think, making decisions, understanding ‘why’, gaining new and valuable insights and acquiring knowledge.

HEART: Being concerned with the welfare of others, determining values and attitudes by which to live, and learning how to work with others.

HANDS: Learning new skills, improving skills already developed, instilling pride in work, and earning respect for work accomplished.

HEALTH: Practicing healthful living, protecting the well-being of self and others, andmaking constructive use of leisure time.

This four-fold development is vital to every individual. Each of the H’s should be an important part of the goals youth identify as they participate in 4-H sponsored programs and educational activities.

Material adapted by:

Lea Ann Larson, Montana State University

Thank you to the following for letting Montana 4-H

use their resources in this book:

Ohio 4-H Youth Development, Ohio State University Extension

Texas 4-H and Youth Development, Texas A&M System

Kansas 4-H, K-State Extension

Oklahoma 4-H, Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service

New Jersey 4-H, Rutgers Cooperative Extension

4-H Youth Development UW Extension, University of Wisconsin

Iowa 4-H, Iowa State University Extension

Designed by: Montana State University Extension

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Montana State University and the Montana State University Extension prohibit discrimination in all of their programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital and family status. Issued in furtherance of cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Jill Martz, Director of Extension, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 5971778 USC 707

Welcome

This guide is designed to provide basic information about being a leader and outlines the responsibilities that organizational leaders have when helping youth in a club setting. It may not answer all your questions but the hope is that it will be an important resource that answers many of them. The 4-H Center for Youth Development has developed two leader trainings that will supplement this booklet and the staff at the center strongly encourages leaders to attend them. Theses trainings, “Essential Elements of 4-H Youth Development” and “FUNdamentals of Positive Youth Development: Leaders College”, are taught by Extension staff and volunteer leaders and provide an opportunity for leaders to learn more about the 4-H mission and how to successfully promote positive youth development.

I believe:

- The 4-H member is more important than the 4-H project.

- 4-H members should be their own best exhibit.

- No award is worth sacrificing the reputation of a member or a leader.

- Competition should be given no more emphasis than other fundamentals of

4-H work.

- Enthusiasm is caught, not taught.

- To learn by doing is fundamental in any sound educational program and is characteristic of the 4-H program.

- Generally speaking, there is more than one good way to do most things.

- Every 4-H member needs to be noticed,

to feel important, to win and be praised. (Volunteers, too!)

- Our job as a 4-H volunteer leader is

to teach 4-H members how to think,

not what to think.

A 4-H Creed for Leaders

- source unknown

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 A 4-H Leader’s Role

Leadership opportunities at the Club Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Job Description for Organizational Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Job Description for Project Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Job Description for Activity Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Leadership opportunities at the County Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Leadership opportunities at the District Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Leadership opportunities at the State Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

CHAPTER 2 Working with Youth

Ages and Stages of Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Developing Decision-Making Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Child-Centered Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Experiential Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

CHAPTER 3 Helping Youth Achieve

Selecting 4-H Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Goal-Writing for 4-H Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Record Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

CHAPTER 4 Organizing the 4-H Club Meetings

Meeting Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Seating Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Time and Length of Meetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Parts of a Meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Club Officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

CHAPTER 5 Club Goals and Yearly Club Plan

Setting Club Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Doing a Yearly Program Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Getting and Keeping Members Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

CHAPTER 6 Recognizing Youth and Adults

4-H Model of Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Recognizing 4-H’ers for Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Recognizing 4-H’ers for Progress Toward Self-Set Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Recognizing 4-H’ers for Achieving Standards of Excellence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Recognizing 4-H’ers for Results from Peer Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Recognizing 4-H’ers for their Cooperative Efforts and Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

APPENDIX Goal-Writing Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Club Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Resources for Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

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CHAPTER 1 A 4-H leader’s Role

Volunteer Leaders are organizers, teachers and mentors to the youth in the 4-H program. Leaders work with Extension to create educational programming through club meetings, community service projects, events, activities, and learning-by-doing projects. Leaders give of their time and resources while working with the local 4-H Extension Agent to create programs in their community.

To be a 4-H Volunteer Leader, you must be 19 years of age and have completed the Volunteer Leader Application, 4-H Volunteer Disclosure and Consent Form, 4-H Volunteer Agreement and Standards of Behavior, pass the leaders certification process, and be approved by Extension. Leaders under 21 cannot chaperone youth on overnight trips. Check with the local county extension staff for more information on becoming a leader.

LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES - CLUB LEVEL

Leaders at the club level are the principal leaders for the 4-H program. Clubs typically have three volunteer leader positions - Organizational, Project and Activity. Project and Activity Leaders assist the Organizational Leader in providing a more complete program. Job descriptions for each type of leader are found on the following pages. Each job description outlines the purpose, time commitment, responsibilities and training opportunities and resources available. Local county Extension offices may have more county-specific descriptions for leaders that reflect the local community. Clubs that have leaders in all three roles working together with youth are more successful. Having several people in the leadership roles of the club allows delegating the time required to be a leader to more people. 3

Organizational Leader

Purpose: Guide the overall organization of the club, help it function smoothly and maintain communications among the member families, the club and the county. Be the primary club contact person with the county Extension staff.

Time and commitment required: 10 to 15 hours monthly (depends on club size and activities) through the 4-H year, October to September.

Responsibilities:

  • Complete certification process for Montana 4-H Leaders.
  • Help members select projects.
  • Turn in enrollment forms for members and leaders to the Extension Office in a timely manner.
  • Help club officers prepare meeting agendas, learn leadership skills, and carry out their other duties.
  • Help club members set annual goals and plan the yearly program and activities, including community service and service learning opportunities.
  • Secure and distribute project manuals and other resources for members and leaders.
  • Conduct group activities and events with risk management plans for each.
  • Share information about activities with club members and parents.
  • Maintain regular and timely contact with the county Extension staff.
  • Attend trainings and keep up-to-date on county and state events.
  • Report enrollment and other requests to the Extension office.
  • Help other club leaders plan and implement learning experiences with members and families.
  • Assist youth in recognizing other volunteers and supporters of the club.

Training Opportunities and Resources available:

  • Orientation, training, guidance, and support from county Extension staff.
  • Support and assistance from other leaders, mentors, volunteers and parents.
  • Printed 4-H materials for members and organizational leaders.
  • Workshops and conferences throughout the year.

4

Project Leader

Purpose: Work with members enrolled in a specific project or project area, assisting them to plan and carry out experiences that will help them reach their learning goals. Support the positive growth and development of each youth involved. Develop important life skills and create opportunities for youth to learn, lead and serve.

Time and commitment required: Two to four hours for planning, working directly with youth, and follow up for each project meeting. More time can be spent, if desired, by volunteers and members in the project group. Project leadership can be a short-term opportunity. A variety of options are available, such as working once a month, once a week, or for the 4-H year (October to September).

Responsibilities:

  • Complete certification process for Montana 4-H Leaders.
  • Become familiar with project literature and sharing knowledge of the project.
  • Assist with enrollment by introducing the project to all members and parents.
  • Help members establish goals and plan for their project work.
  • Conduct project meetings and workshops.
  • Give support to members in planning and carrying out projects as needed.
  • Encourage members to complete their project work as planned.
  • Involve experienced youth in teaching.
  • Encourage parents to support project work at home.
  • Help members identify additional resource materials to expand learning.
  • Assist members with exhibits, demonstrations and other sharing activities.
  • Provide member recognition for the project accomplishment.
  • Help members complete activity guides and record books to evaluate their progress on projects.
  • Keep members informed of other opportunities related to projects.
  • Be aware of risks and use risk management strategies related to project work.
  • Update your own project skills by attending relevant trainings.
  • Assist with other project-related activities on the county and state level.
  • Help identify, select and support new volunteers.

Training Opportunities and Resources available:

  • Orientation, training guidance, and support from county Extension staff.
  • Getting Started As a 4-H Project Leader, #L90530.
  • Support and assistance from other leaders, mentors, volunteers and parents.
  • Printed 4-H materials for members and project leader guides.
  • Related workshops and conferences throughout the year.5

Activity Leader

Purpose: Work with members in planning and carrying out specific activities for the club or the county while supporting the positive growth and development of each youth involved.

Time and Commitment Required: Time will vary with the nature of the activity. Activities take place throughout the year. Most activities will require several meetings to plan, implement and evaluate the activity.

Responsibilities:

  • Complete certification process for Montana 4-H Leaders.
  • Provide leadership to 4-H committee members organizing the activity.
  • Assist committee in setting goals and developing a plan for the activity.
  • Assist committee members in selecting age/developmentally appropriate activities.
  • Identify and secure activity resources (people, materials, funds, transportation, etc.).
  • Coordinate all aspects of the activity including effectively delegating responsibilities.
  • Assist members in reflection on the development of life skills through this activity.
  • Identify and manage risk.
  • Recruit other volunteers and plan for supervision.
  • Communicate regularly with other leaders and volunteers.
  • Coordinate scheduling of activities with clubs and the county Extension office.
  • Help identify, select and support new volunteers.
  • Support projects that may relate to the assigned activity.
  • Encourage/facilitate participation in related activities on the county and state level.
  • Celebrate the successful completion of the activity.

Training Opportunities and Resources available:

  • Orientation, training guidance and support from Extension staff.
  • Support and assistance from other leaders and parents.
  • Printed 4-H materials for leaders and members.
  • Workshops and conferences throughout the year 6

LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES - COUNTY LEVEL

County 4-H Council Representative

The county 4-H Council brings together adults and youth to work with the county Extension agent to develop, implement and evaluate educational programs based upon the needs of the youth in the county. Most county councils have a representative membership made up of adult and teen leaders from different clubs in their county; how the representation is formed varies from county to county.

Membership of the council will be defined in the county council bylaws. Club organizational leaders are asked to be members of the county 4-H Council in most Montana counties. Check with the local Extension Office for more information.

County Project and Activity Leaders

Project and activity leader titles and responsibilities will vary by county so it is best to check with the county staff for job descriptions if you are interested in helping or being a leader on the county level.

LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES - DISTRICT LEVEL

Montana 4-H is divided up into eight districts. Each district has a leadership board with adult and teen leaders that represent each county in the district. How the leadership board is formed, when they meet, and what activities they sponsor are set by the districts.

County staff can give more information on district events and leadership opportunities. Districts have some responsibilities in common; the first is to assist the state with conferences for youth and adults that rotate by district. Rec-Lab and Leadership Forum are two such events. The other shared responsibility is to elect two leaders per district to be on the State 4-H Council.

Montana’s eight 4-H DistrictsBeaverhead Big Horn Blaine Golden Carbon Carter Cascade Chouteau Custer Daniels Dawson Deer Lodge Fallon Fergus Flathead Gallatin Garfield Glacier Broad- waterGranite Hill Jefferson Judith Lake Lewis and Clark Liberty Lincoln McCone Madison Meagher Missoula Musselshell Park Petroleum Phillips Pondera Powder River Powell Prairie Ravalli Richland Roosevelt Rosebud Sanders Sheridan Silver Bow Sweet Teton Toole Treasure Valley Wheatland Yellowstone Valley Grass Basin Still-water 1 2 4 3 5 6 7 8 Wibaux Mineral 7

LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES - STATE LEVEL

There are many opportunities for leaders to be involved on the state level; listed below are major opportunities. Check with the local county Extension Office or the Montana 4-H Center for Youth Development for more information on these.

International Programs Advisory Committee

IPAC was formed in 2009 in order to provide oversight to the Montana 4-H International programs. The members represent the 4-H Center for Youth Development, the Montana 4-H Foundation, the International Foreign Youth Exchange (IFYE) program, the summer inbound and outbound programs, and the 4-H agents. IPAC meets at least twice a year and is charged with raising funds for international programs, managing existing funds, establishing program priorities, and marketing and curriculum development related to the existing 4-H international exchanges. There are no formal selection criteria at this point, nor are there criteria for length of service. If interested in serving on this committee or for more information contact the International Program Coordinator at the State 4-H Center for Youth Development.

Montana 4-H Council

All volunteer adult and teen leaders in good standing are members of the Montana 4-H Council. The Council provides key advice and direction to the 4-H Center for Youth Development and the Montana 4-H program.

The executive committee of the Montana 4-H Council consists of two volunteers from each of the eight 4-H districts in Montana. These district representatives serve on the Council along with a youth representative from the Ambassador Officer Team, a young adult representing collegiate 4-H, and one from the state at-large.

The Council meets four times a year and they actively support various initiatives and programs deemed important to furthering the work of Montana 4-H.

Montana 4-H Curriculum Advisory Team

This committee is an advisory committee to the Montana 4-H Curriculum and Outreach Specialist. The membership of the committee is made up of county Extension agents and volunteer leaders. The members serve three-year terms and the committee meets at least twice a year. For more information contact the Curriculum Specialist at the State 4-H Center for Youth Development.

Montana 4-H Foundation Board

The Montana 4-H Foundation was established in 1969 to help 4-H youth by raising funds, managing financial resources and partnering with MSU Extension to fund educational opportunities for Montana 4-H youth, volunteers and staff.

The Board, composed of up to 25 members, has representation throughout the state, with members from a variety of professions and experiences. A director can serve two consecutive three-year terms. The Board also includes two county agents (a three-year term) and three youth; one state Ambassador officer (one-year term) and two at-large youth members (two-year term).

Anyone can recommend a person to be a Board Director. The Nominating Committee seeks recommendations from the 4-H community in which the candidates reside before the new directors are voted on at the Foundation Annual Meeting during State 4-H Congress in July.

Montana 4-H Foundation Representatives

The State 4-H Foundation was organized in 1969 to help fund the state 4-H program. Currently it raises money and supports many activities on which Montana 4-H youth participate. People Partner Grants, State 4-H Congress, State Rec-Lab, Citizenship Seminar, and National 4-H Congress are just a few of the events the State 4-H Foundation monetarily supports. Each county is asked to have a representative that assists the foundation at the county level to raise awareness and funding for the foundation.

Contact the Montana 4-H Foundation for more information at (406) 994-5911 or email, 4hfdn@montana.edu.8

State Ambassador Advisors

The Ambassadors work with the State 4-H Office and the State Ambassador Officer Team. The State Ambassador Advisor Leaders are selected at pre-congress by the Ambassador Officer Selection Committee. State Ambassador Advisors serve a four-year term. Check for details on the Montana 4-H website, montana4h.org.

State Horse Committee

This committee assists the State 4-H Program Coordinator for Agriculture and Natural Resources with policy, curriculum and statewide activities for the horse project. They work to educate members in the care, training and use of their horses with the goal of improving skills and enhancing the abilities of 4-H members and leaders.

Committee membership consists of two 4-H horse volunteer leaders and two 4-H horse project teen leaders from each of the eight 4-H districts and up to four Extension agents. The term for adult leaders is three years and they may serve two consecutive terms. The term for youth leaders is one year and they may serve consecutive terms while they are a member of 4-H.

Members of this committee are nominated by their local county 4-H horse committee and county agent. The nominations are then reviewed and voted on by the State 4-H Program Coordinator for Agriculture and Natural Resources and the current members of the State Horse Committee.

If interested in this committee, contact the local Extension office or the Montana 4-H Program Coordinator for Agriculture and Natural Resources at the Montana 4-H Center for Youth Development.

State Events Planning Committees

Special projects and events come up from year to year. When they do come up, the State 4-H office will ask for volunteers (youth and adult) that would like to work on the event or project. Check for details on the Montana 4-H website, montana4h.org.

State Livestock Committee

This committee was formed in 2008 to serve as an executive and decision-making body on behalf of 4-H livestock project members. It also organizes and supports statewide activities to educate members in the care, training and use of their livestock with the goal of improving skills and enhancing the abilities of 4-H members and leaders. The board meets twice a year and membership consists of two 4-H livestock leaders and two 4-H livestock project teen members from each of the eight 4-H districts, as well as Animal Extension specialists from Montana State University and Agricultural Extension agents from around the state.

Committee members are selected through a nomination process. Check for details online at montana4h.org. If interested in this committee contact the local Extension office or the Montana 4-H Program Coordinator for Agriculture and Natural Resources at the Montana 4-H Center for Youth Development.

State Shooting Sports Committee

The Montana State 4-H Shooting Sports Advisory Committee is made up of any 4-H shooting sports leader who has attended a National 4-H Shooting Sports Training to become qualified as a state level instructor. In order to be a 4-H shooting sports leader in Montana, county volunteers must attend a training workshop taught by a nationally trained instructor.

The purpose of the State 4-H Shooting Sports Advisory Committee is to set policy for the Montana 4-H shooting sports program, plan and implement at least three statewide trainings per year, oversee the general rules of the state 4-H shooting sports tournament, and advise the Montana 4-H Program Coordinator for Agriculture and Natural Resources on all shooting sports related issues within the 4-H program. There are no term limits assigned to members of the Montana State 4-H Shooting Sports Advisory Committee.

If interested in this committee, contact the local Extension office or the Montana 4-H Program Coordinator for Agriculture and Natural Resources at the Montana 4-H Center for Youth Development. 9

CHAPTER 2 Working with youth

When leaders and youth work together in groups it makes learning relevant and more fun. As an adult leader, your role is to help young people develop a sense of autonomy and personal and social responsibility. Why is autonomy so important? A sense of autonomy enables youth to make decisions for themselves. It gives young people the confidence to make good decisions when dealing with day-to day situations. All youth need nurturing, supportive and protective environments where they can grow to be healthy, contributing adults.

Each young person needs to:

  • Know they are cared about by others: that they Belong.
  • Feel and believe they are capable and successful: that they can demonstrate Mastery.
  • Know they are able to influence people and events: that they have Independence.
  • Practice helping others: that they can demonstrate Generosity.

The developmental needs of youth differ as they mature. It is important that 4-H volunteers understand how young people grow, develop and learn. This knowledge will aid in planning more effective programs for all members.

AGES AND STAGES OF YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

4-H leaders work with youth in informal educational settings to create a caring, safe environment where youth can learn. The role of adult leaders will change depending on the members ages, knowledge level and projects involved. This overview of how children develop and grow discusses common physical, cognitive (thinking), social and emotional characteristics. There are ideas on what types of programming works best at different ages and developmental stages. It is important to understand that all children develop differently and no two children are exactly the same.

Leaders can help make 4-H a rewarding and fulfilling experience for members by helping them grow and develop. Leaders do this by accepting youth at their current developmental stage and by offering challenging experiences that will help them make the transition into their next stage of development.

Early Childhood, ages 5 to 8 - Cloverbuds

5 to 8 year-olds are just mastering physical skills; they can control their large muscles better than small muscles and generally have lots of energy. Socially, they are learning how to be friends and may prefer to be in gender specific groups.

Emotionally, they are self-centered and seek approval from adults. They will go out of their way to avoid punishment and are very sensitive to criticism.

Intellectually, they are concrete thinkers. The “here and now” is important and they have not mastered abstract thinking. Right and wrong are important concepts for them. When starting a project, it is important to demonstrate, not just verbally describe how to do it.

This age group typically has a shorter attention span, so it’s best to use more activities that last a short time. Choose activities that encourage use of gross motor skills, such as running and playing active games. Also try arts and crafts projects that allow them to practice the fine motor skills that are important for developing coordination. Projects and meal times can be messy because Cloverbuds are still learning these motor skills.

Small group activities, such as role-playing, help children gain empathy and lets them practice social skills. It is important to plan activities where all members can experience some successes.

Activities should foster cooperation, not competition.

Middle Childhood, ages 9 to 12

Physically, 9 to 12 year-olds are growing and becoming more coordinated as fine motor skills increase. They can now do activities such as hammering, sawing and playing musical instruments.

Socially, peers become very important. Their desire to be independent from adults is also increasing. The concepts of right and wrong are continuing to be defined. They are starting to discuss and evaluate others; they start to see things as “fair” or “unfair.” Be aware that this is the age when children begin to show prejudice towards others.

Emotionally, this can be the beginning of disobedience, back-talk and rebelliousness of youth. They have a strong attachment to their own sex and may show antagonism towards the opposite sex. Abstract thought is possible, plans can extend over several weeks, and they can evaluate activities with insight.

When planning activities for this age group plan for physical involvement. Use hands-on activities that allow youth to make and do things. Activities at the club level are important, because they allow youth to make decisions about what to do or make. Group youth by gender when possible. Use simple, short instructions while including real-life objects when demonstrating.

Emphasize progress and achievement over competition.

1011

Early Adolescence, ages 13 to 15

This age group is going through many changes. Physically, they are growing at an increased rate and may become clumsy until coordination catches up with growth. Socially, they still depend on rules that adults initiate, even though they may protest. Peer group pressure increases. Crushes are common and interest in activities involving the opposite sex is increasing, although interest is often shown by contrary behavior. This group will also have strong emotional ties to, and aspire to be like, an older peer or adult.

Intellectually, youth are developing a growing capacity to reason and think abstractly. They want to be part of something important and they have the ability to persist until desired results are achieved. Youth can and want to take on more responsibility in planning and evaluating their work.

When planning activities at this age, include things that require more physical coordination but do not compare youth’s physical characteristics. It is important for this age group to help determine the rules for their activities. Their active participation in youth organizations may decline if they feel they have no influence in the organization. Provide opportunities for youth to succeed, and avoid comparing performances with others. This age group may show interest in activities with the opposite sex, but also want to interact with their same-sex peers. It is important that the 4-H program provide opportunities for both kinds of interaction.

Youth at this age also need opportunities to work with adults in partnerships. Service-learning projects support these partnerships and foster feelings of inclusiveness.

Use simple short instructions, while including real-life objects when teaching.

Middle Adolescence, ages 16 to 18 - High School

Physically, changes are slowing for both boys and girls, and they are accepting of changes in their appearance while gaining physical coordination and confidence. Socially, they can be self-centered, while still capable of feeling empathy. Acceptance by members of the opposite sex is important to them. They may be spending more time on school and less on club and group activities - they want to belong to clubs, but also want to define their own uniqueness.

This is an age where youth are defining their identity and want to be autonomous from parents as they start to prepare for the future. They like to set their goals based on their own needs, and may reject goals imposed by others. They may see adults as fallible but still want adults to provide consistency in their lives.

When designing programs for high school members, be willing to answer questions about physical changes and avoid comments that criticize or compare. Let teens plan programs, allow them to assume responsibility, and expect them to follow through. Give them real-life problems to figure out because they want to be able to make their own decisions and be a part of evaluating the outcomes. Encouraging service-learning will help them focus on others instead of themselves. Establish a climate that is conducive to peer support and encourage them to work with other teens. This is a time when friendships can be intense, close and long-lasting.

Holding youth accountable and experiencing consequences (good and bad) helps prepare teens for adulthood.

Adapted from Ages and Stages of Child and Youth Development: A Guide for 4-H Leaders (Karnes & Myers-Walls, 1996) and Michigan 4-H Programming Committees: A Plan for the Future (Nelson, 1990).12

DEVELOPING DECISION-MAKING SKILLS

Often, adults make most of the decisions for children and then expect them to start out in the world at 18 or 19 years of age as model decision-makers without giving them any experience in making decisions for themselves. It is not surprising that some 18 year-olds may not make good choices if they have not been allowed to participate in making choices at a younger age.

4-H club work counters this trend and teaches youth to become decision makers. Members make decisions each time they meet and those decisions can influence the success or failure of their activities. The decisions that young people make in their club work allow them to be in meaningful, decision-making roles. Letting youth make their own decisions can also help keep youth connected to their communities and create an atmosphere where they feel empowered instead of isolated and alienated.

CHILD-CENTERED APPROACH

4-H promotes positive youth development and encourages good decision-making by encouraging leaders to uses the child-centered approach. The child-centered approach means that the focus is on the interests and needs of youth as they:

  • Set their own goals.
  • Make plans to reach their goals.
  • Carry out their plans.
  • Assess progress towards reaching goals.

These tasks should be carried out with guidance, understanding, encouragement and recognition from parents and leaders.

Programs that have a youth centered approach work well in youth/adult partnerships where young people are involved in planning and decision-making roles at all levels of the organization while being supported by caring adults. Bringing young people into leadership roles within the 4-H program has many benefits for youth, for adults, and for the program itself. By working in true partnership, the developmental needs of young people are met. Youth gain leadership experience while they are in leadership roles, improving the community and organizations in which they live and operate.

As a leader, your role will change from a leader that makes most of the decisions to a facilitator where youth make decisions. How much input leaders have will depend on the ages and ability of the youth as discussed in the previous section.

Youth like to be involved in planning their own activities. Leaders working with younger children may need to give the group ideas and allow them to choose what they would like to do. Conversely, leaders working with older youth will want to let the youth brainstorm their own ideas. If activities are planned and executed by members they are more likely to be involved and take pride in their accomplishments. As a leader, remember when empowering youth to make their own decisions you may be required to let go of preconceived ideas and traditions. 13

EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING

4-H is based on the concept of “learning by doing”. Leaders and members say and hear the phrase, but what does it mean and how do we use it in 4-H? The Experiential Learning model focuses on three stages: Do, Reflect, Apply.

  1. Youth engage in an experience or activity of interest and do it.
  2. Then they share the results and make observations and process or reflect on their experiences. They may ask why did it work this way or how do I change it to make it better?
  3. From their experiences, youth connect the information learned to their world. Then, using the knowledge and skills they have learned, they apply their knowledge and skills to similar situations.

As a leader, your role in experiential learning is to review and practice the activities and to become familiar with the subject. When working with youth, encourage and guide them to find the answer and solutions for themselves. Ask youth to reflect on the experience and look for ways to apply what they have learned. To guide youth, leaders can develop questions that ask:

  • When you did , what happened?
  • So when you did that, what was important? Why was it important?
  • So now that you have done this, what now? How will this information be used in the future?

Adapted from New Jersey Leader Training Series, Learn by Doing the 4-H Way (4th ed.)

The Experiential Learning Process

Youth do before being told or shown how.

1

Experience

the activity,

perform,

do it

Youth decribe the results of the experience and their reactions.

5

Apply

what was learned

to a similar or

different situation;

practice

Youth use the skills learned in other parts of their lives.

2

Share

the results, reactions and observations publicly

DO

APPLY

REFLECT

Youth relate the experience to the learning objectives (life skills and/or subject matter).

Youth connect the discussion to the larger world.

4

Generalize

to connect the experience to real-world examples

3

Process

by discussing, looking at the experience, analyze, reflect

RISK MANAGEMENT

While it is important to let youth make their own decisions, as a leader you have the responsibility to ensure that the decisions youth are making are emotionally and physically safe for all members. This means evaluating each event for risk.

Risk management is important in insuring the safety of youth and adult program participants. Risk includes the many unexpected things that can happen to the participants, spectators, properties and reputation of 4-H as part of the program. Risk also becomes an important educational component of the program by focusing on safety and prevention.

A process of evaluating each event should be used to protect assets by minimizing the potential for negative outcomes. It means that 4-H clubs, groups or planning committees anticipate potential risks as the activity is planned and decide on ways to mange the risks.

The first step in Risk Management is to identify the potential risks involved in the project or event. Then an evaluation should be made by the group how to manage the risk; should it be assumed, reduced, transferred or avoided.

  • Assume the risk. When looking at the event or project, the group has decided that all necessary precautions have been taken and the level of risk is low. They decide to conduct the event as they have it planned; this means they are assuming the risk.
  • Reduce the risk. When looking at the event, the group decided to make some changes to reduce the degree of risk by modifying the program or facility. For example, a fair livestock committee may decide to add a fence to separate the public from animals in a show ring at a fair to reduce the risk to the spectators.
  • Transfer or share the risk. Another method to help manage risk is to transfer or share the risk. Supplemental insurance, informed consent forms, and assumption of risk forms are commonly used in the 4-H program. For example, parents of participants at summer 4-H camps may be asked to complete an informed consent/assumption of risk form in order for their youth to participate in higher risk activities such as rock climbing or challenge course activities. Furthermore, camp organizers my acquire supplemental accident insurance to further share the risk of injury.
  • Avoid the risk. If a group looks at an event and takes steps to remove a hazard or transfer risk but the risk is still high, the best solution may be to engage in an alternative activity or avoid the activity completely. For example, a night hike at camp could be completely cancelled or replaced with a day time hike.

After an event it is a good idea for the committee or group to review the risk management plan, evaluate it and make changes to further reduce risk at the next event.

Accident Insurance

County 4-H programs may purchase accident insurance for volunteer leaders and members or events. Contact the county office for information on member accident insurance. It is a good idea to know what the insurance does and does not cover so that approved activities can be planned into a club or event risk assessment. A company that has accident insurance for groups such as 4-H is American Income Life (www.americanincomelife.com/who-we-serve/4-H-insurance). Contact them for more information on their products.

Volunteer Protections

In Montana, 4-H volunteers acting in an official capacity for Montana State University Extension are in part carrying out the business of Extension. To that extent they are covered by Section 2-9-305, Montana Code Annotated, which provides them with the immunization, defense and indemnification while acting within the course of their official capacity as a 4-H volunteer leader. More limits are available online in the aforementioned section of the code (http://data.opi.mt.gov/bills/mca/2/9/2-9-305.htm).

Adapted from the Wisconsin 4-H Club Training Series ACTcc065, Risky Business: Risk Management Essentials, and from the Ohio 4-H Clubs Advisors Handbook, Ohio 4-H Youth Development Risk Management Checklist.

1415

CHAPTER 3 Helping Youth Achieve

Leaders play an important role in helping youth select a project(s) for the year. 4-H projects build life skills such as critical thinking and a sense of responsibility in decision-making. Youth familiar with 4-H may come to the meeting knowing what projects they want to do and there will be other youth that need help finding an interest. In 4-H, youth have the chance to learn about a project area in depth over several years or may enjoy learning about something that interests them for only a year or two. Sometimes it may be a combination of the two.

SELECTING A 4-H PROJECT

Selecting a 4-H project can be a big decision for 4-H members and their parents. To have a more rewarding 4-H experience, parents, leaders and youth should be involved in this process.

When looking at which projects to take, four major factors should go into the decision:

  • With sports, extracurricular activities, and other youth programs youth are busier than ever today. Be realistic about the amount of time a 4-H’er has for projects they are interested in.
  • This may sound too simplistic, but what is the 4-H member truly interested in? What skills do they already possess? What do they want to learn about?
  • What is the space required for a project area? Does it require a large backyard, barn or work space? How can things be arranged so there is enough space?
  • Are there adults who are willing and able to share their knowledge? Are there financial constraints? (Many projects have start-up costs.) Is it possible to fundraise to do this project? Is transportation an issue? 

A common question that is asked is, how many projects can a member take? It is recommended that new members limit the number of projects so that their projects can be completed and not become overwhelming. Members, along with their parents, should evaluate the time, interest, space and resources of each project and decide on a realistic number of projects that fits their family’s lifestyle. Also, check with the local 4-H Extension agent for any county policies regarding projects.

GOAL-WRITING FOR 4-H MEMBERS

A big part of the 4-H year is setting goals. Having goals is like going on a trip - you need to know where you want to go so you know when you’ve arrived! Goals are important and are useful for any 4-H project. Record books have a place for youth to record their goals at the beginning of the 4-H year.

Hints for setting and working towards goals:

  • Use a club meeting early in the year to help youth set goals. An educational program for the meeting can focus on setting project goals.

Idea: Have the members bring their books to the club meetings, then ask questions that get members thinking about what they would like to learn and accomplish in their project for the year.

  • As a leader to be ready to give advice on what are some reasonable goals for the youth in the different project areas. When making suggestions or giving ideas, make sure you are letting youth make the final decision. 16

How to Write a Goal

Goals have three parts that can be measured or checked:

  1. The action: how you are going to do it.
  2. The result: what you will do.
  3. The timetable: when you plan to have it done.

When youth are setting goals and they are not certain they can carry out a goal easily, give it a control test.

  • Does the MEMBER have control over what he/she wants to do?
  • Does the action part of his/her goal tell what the member will do?

For example, the youth has control over a goal such as “I will learn to put in a hand sewn hem.” However, if the action mentioned in the goal is what someone else will do, it does not pass the control test.

The goal statement, “I will have a champion steer at the County Fair” does not pass the control test because the judge provides the action that decides whose steer will be the champion. “I will compete with my steer at the country fair” does pass.

A goal setting worksheet is provided in the Appendix on page 27. It can be used by individuals or a club to set goals for the upcoming year and could make a good educational program for a 4-H meeting.

As a leader, use a club meeting near the end of the 4-H year to talk with members about which goals they have met and which ones they may need some help with. Sometimes goals change during the year and that’s okay! If they don’t meet a goal, they can keep it for next year.

Have the youth write about why their goals were not met or were changed when they are evaluating their project and finishing their record book. Not everything we plan turns out the way we expected. Have them look at the process as a learning moment and not a failure to meet the goal. Maybe the goal was just too big to accomplish in one year and needs to be broken down into segments.

If the youth expresses boredom with their goal, that’s a sign it may be time to try something new or more challenging.

Adapted from the Iowa State 4-H Extension and Outreach website. “NOW is the time to start setting your 4-H goals for the year!”

For example, for the goal, “I want to learn how to sew with wool and model my project in the county fashion revue.”

  1. The action: “I want to learn”
  2. The result or what a 4-H’er intends to do: “sew a project using wool fabric”
  3. The timetable or the amount of time: “participate in the County Fashion Revue”

1617

RECORD BOOKS

As a leader, one of your responsibilities is to encourage and check on member’s progress toward completing their 4-H books.

Record books can be overwhelming and confusing to youth and leaders alike, and many wonder why keeping records is a part of their projects. The simple answer is that 4-H project records teach the life skill of record keeping to youth. Think about the records that are kept in a household - children’s immunization and health records, vehicle maintenance records, checkbook registers, and farm animal birth and sire records. These are only a few of the important “record books” that adults keep when running a household or farm. Without them, children cannot go to school, taxes get delayed, and farm income can be adversely effected.

Keeping good records teaches 4-Hers to:

  • Plan and organize their work
  • Measure progress in their project(s)
  • Identify expenses and financial gains
  • Budget for their project and other financial needs
  • Yearly verify all 4-H activities and experiences
  • Evaluate project growth and develop a plan of action for further growth and future project work
  • Observe growth over the years 

Good records are also:

  • A source to refer to when filling out applications for out-of-county educational events
  • A guide when applying for 4-H awards and scholarships
  • Assist in completing employment and/or college application forms
  • A help when writing resumes for college and/or employment 

Encourage youth to make their record books their own. In addition to the goals and financial summaries, they can add pictures and narratives that track their accomplishments and tell about what they did and learned for the year.

It is a good practice to plan time at club or project meetings throughout the year to check on the progress members are making on their record books. This will help members keep their records up-to-date as the year progresses and prevent them from doing their entire book at the end of summer.

Montana 4-H has record book sheets that can be found on the Montana 4-H website, montana4h.org. The website also has record book pages that can be filled out on a computer. To learn more about filling out record books, visit with your county 4-H Extension office.

Adapted from the New Jersey Leader Training Series, Record Keeping in 4-H. (4th ed.)18

CHAPTER 4 Organizing Your Club

MEETING PLACE

The facility for a meeting depends on the size of a club and the ages of the members. Explore available meeting places and consider how well each one will meet the needs of the club. Lighting, available space, comfort and room arrangement all influence meetings. Things to keep in mind when deciding where to meet include:

  • How large is your club?
  • How much room do you need for activities or recreation?
  • Do any members or adults have special needs; is the location accessible to all? 

SEATING ARRANGEMENTS

Seating arrangements can make a difference in how people interact and how involved youth are in the 4-H meeting. Youth seated in rows (like school) do not talk or interact as much. Seating everyone in a circle or semi-circle creates a feeling of inclusion and friendliness. When everyone can see and hear everyone else it encourages members to get involved and participate in the meeting.

TIME AND LENGTH OF MEETING

The time and frequency that a club meets will vary with each club. The traditionally chartered 4-H club is required to meet 6 times a year. Special Interest clubs tend to meet more often for shorter time frames; instead of having a meeting each month of the year; the club holds a series of meetings with a focused, planned program.

How and when a club meets should be outlined in their constitution, by-laws or club plan. It is important to be respectful of everyone’s time and plan meetings that are informative, educational and fun. Successful clubs set a consistent date and time, such as the first Monday of the month at 7 pm, although the date and time should be flexible enough to accommodate different activities and programs.

A 4-H MEETING HAS 3 MAIN PARTS:

Opening & Business

15 to 20 minutes

Project Activity

30 to 40 minutes

Recreation & Refreshments

15 to 20 minutes 19

PARTS OF A MEETING

Club meetings typically include the business meeting that the officers run, the educational program and a group team-building or recreational activity. A good club meeting has three parts with definite activities in each part.

  1. Opening and Business Session

Get acquainted activities, Mixers

Call to order

Pledges

Roll call

Minutes of last meeting by Secretary

Reports -

Correspondence Report

Treasurers Report

Committee Reports

Unfinished Business

New Business

Announcements

  1. Educational Program
  2. Recreation/Refreshments

See the President’s and Vice President’s Handbook (#5244) for more information on parts of a meeting.

CLUB OFFICERS

Recommended offices are outlined in the Sample Constitution and Bylaws that can be found in the Montana 4-H Secretary’s Handbook (4-H 5327). The number of officers a club has is up to the club membership. When the club Constitution and Bylaws are set up you can define the term and name of officers. Some clubs rotate youth in offices throughout the year or may do a shadow system where an older member is the officer and he/she mentors a less experienced member. The 4-H Center for Youth Development has the following manuals for club officers. They can also be found online at montana4h.org.

  • Montana 4-H President’s and Vice President’s Handbook 4-H 5244
  • Montana 4-H Secretary’s Handbook 4-H 5327
  • Montana 4-H Treasurer’s Record Book 4-H 5242
  • So, You are Historian of your 4-H Club 4-H 5260
  • Montana 4-H Reporter’s Book 4-H 5243
  • Parliamentary Practice for 4-H 4-H 5303 

COMMITTEES

Committees are a representative group of members that can hold smaller planning meetings for events such as tours, community service projects, parents’ nights, special parties or events, fair exhibits, camp, floats, and picnics. They are a good opportunity for youth that may not have the time, experience or desire to be a club officer but want to be more involved.

Clubs may have standing committees or special committees. Standing committees meet all year and have the same job all year, such as a recreation committee. Special committees are appointed to do one task, such as plan the club picnic. Special committee members get involved in short-term leadership roles.

The exact number of members on a committee will depend on the activity being planned. Membership should include one adult or teen leader. The adult or teen leader’s job on a committee is not to chair the committee but instead outline the scope of the activity and then to keep the committee focused on its purpose and to help with the risk management plan. The ages and abilities of the members on the committee will determine the involvement level of the leader. 20

CHAPTER 5 Club Goals & Yearly Club Plan

The club’s yearly goals and plans sets the direction that the club will take for the 4-H year. There is no one “right” set of goals or “right way” to do the Yearly Club Plan. The goals and how the club does a yearly plan will depend on the ages of the club members, the size of the club, and the interests and projects of the members. There is a Annual 4-H Club Program Planner in the Secretary’s Handbook (4-H 5327)Appendix and it can also be found at montana4h.org. Members, leaders and parents should be included in the planning.

Leaders and parents will be more active in developing the goals and plans in clubs that have younger members, but it is important to keep members involved in the planning so the goals and plan are relevant to members. When clubs have a wide range of ages, encourage everyone to participate in the group decision. Be sure that activities and programs are appropriate for the ages and skill levels of the club.

One idea for involving everyone is to have the group brainstorm about the goals members would like to be involved in for the year. After the brainstorming, have the club discuss and vote on the final goals. Encourage youth to talk about the steps they need to do in order to accomplish the goals; next, use those steps in setting the yearly calendar.

SETTING CLUB GOALS

The organizational leader will help the members of the club plan the club goals for the year. Just as with project goals, setting goals for the club is an important way to teach life skills. Working as a group toward a goal can teach youth cooperation and service to others. How many goals a club has is up to the club, but one idea would be to have the members set one goal for each of the H’s in the clover. Leaders may want to help youth review and set up steps so that the goal can be achieved. Following is an example.

HEAD Learn to do something as a club.

A sample goal would be: The club members will learn how to give a demonstration. To meet our goal we will have at least 80 percent of members give a demonstration on the club level by March, when the county contest is held.

Set up steps to meet this goal.

  1. Plan a program with an experienced 4-H member giving a simple demonstration.
  2. Set aside time in the Club’s Yearly Plan for youth to do their demonstrations.
  3. Encourage youth that are hesitant and support their efforts.
  4. Celebrate success, both for individual members and as a club when you meet the goal.

Along with a Head challenge the members to set goals for:

HEART Accepting the responsibilities and showing concern for the welfare of others.

Plan a service project that the whole club does together such as a visit to a nursing home or food drive.

HANDS Learn new skills.

Plan an educational program that teaches the 4-H club members to make or build something new.

HEALTH Practicing healthful living.

Host an end-of-year picnic, emphasizing heart healthy foods.

After the club goals are set the steps the club will need to do to achieve each goal can then be added to the yearly plan. 21

DOING A YEARLY PROGRAM PLAN

The planning process will be more successful if the club goals have been set before the club starts working on a plan and if the organizational leader has an idea of the county and state 4-H events that are important to the members in the club. The dates for events and activities may not be set in the fall when the club begins their yearly plan, but many activities happen in the same month each year so the planning can be done by month rather then exact date. The previous year’s 4-H calendar and/or old newsletters, along with school and community calendars, will help in the process. For new clubs, the Extension office can help with dates based on the previous year. It is also a good idea to encourage members and parents to bring family calendars to the planning meeting.

To facilitate the planning process check with the meeting host and see if preprinted calendar pages for the upcoming year, one for each month, can be hung on the walls of the meeting room. As an activity or event is brought up, add it to the calendar for everyone to see. The important dates like the county fair and State 4-H Congress can be put in before the meeting starts.

Putting the approximate date of an event or the date a goal should be completed on the calendar allows the club to work the schedule backwards so that your club is planning for events in advance.

A good rule of thumb for most events is to start the planning process two club meetings in advance. For example, if the fair is at the end of July the club may want to devote part of the educational program in May to the fair. At the meeting, review deadlines and check on members’ progress with projects. The June meeting may then be devoted to filling out entire forms and/or a project showcase.

When the club members have finished discussing the dates for the yearly plan they can assign a committee or person to be responsible for activities. The Secretary’s Handbook (4-H 5327) has the Club Annual Plan that can be used to guide the leaders and club. These same sheets can be found in a fillable electronic form at montana4h.org. When completed, the Secretary should oversee making copies of the plan and distributing them to each member.

Sample plan for September meeting following the yearly plan sheet found in the Montana 4-H Secretary’s Handbook.

Club

Component Description

Committee or Person Responsible

September

Date: 9/10/11

Time: 7:00pm

Location: Jones Family home

Opening Ideas: shoe tag

Jon Dear

Business Items: County events coming up such as Acheivement Night, National 4-H week (usually the first week of October), nomination of officers for next year

officers

Program:

Fun: Recreation and Refreshment Club Year in Review skit leader and parent thank you

drinks

treats

teen memebers

members

Smith family

Jones family

 

Printable version of Parliamentary Practices for 4-H (PDF)

Parliamentary Practices for 4-H

Feb. 2003 • 5303

Parliamentary Procedure

Parliamentary Practice Problems for Montana 4-H Clubs

Welcome and congratulations! You’re getting ready to learn more about conducting organized meetings using the oldest format in democratic society—parliamentary procedure. The rules for parliamentary procedure came about to ensure a consistent process for conducting deliberative meetings.

This guide book of parliamentary practice problems is designed to help you learn how to handle specific mo­tions and procedures. The guide can also be of assistance in preparing for Gavel Games competitions.

Acknowledgements:

Many thanks to Roger E. Regnier, former state leader, and John B. Han­na, Extension 4-H Specialist, Kansas State University Extension, from which much of this material was taken.

This material was adapted, updat­ed and expanded by Kirk A. Astroth, Montana State University, Extension 4-H Specialist, and Nick Shrauger, Gal­latin County 4-H Volunteer.

Layout and Design by Suzi Taylor, MSU Communications Services.

©2003, 2001.

To find answers to specific ques­tions, you can also visit the Robert’s Rules of Order web site at: www.robertsrules.com and visit

www.parliamentarian.org

www.parliamentaryprocedure.org

Why there is Parliamentary Procedure

by Nick Shrauger

Do you remember a time in which you joined a conversation among several people? In that group was an individual or two who seemed to do all of the talking. It was difficult, if not impossible, for you to make a statement, state your ideas or participate in anyway.

Consider what would happen if instead of joining a conversation, you were attending a meeting at which some goal or objective was to be accomplished. How would you feel if you were unable to state your view? Parliamentary procedure makes it possible for you, or anyone else to be heard. Parliamentary procedure is an organized way in which the smallest minority (even just one person) can be heard, while pre­serving the right of the majority to prevail.

Think of the difficulties of conducting busi­ness to arrive at a decision if parliamentary procedure is not used. And think of how short, productive and easy business meetings become when parliamentary procedure is used. It is im­portant for leaders and members alike to know how to conduct business meetings.

What are the rules for Parliamentary Proce­dure? One of the oldest and most popular set is Robert’s Rules of Order. It is the set of rules used by most legislative bodies.

Most of the time meetings are small groups and issues are not contentious. In these cases, only a few simple rules are needed. Often con­sensus (another method of conducting meet­ings) can be used to arrive at a decision. But if a decision is to be made on a difficult issue, it becomes necessary to strictly follow Robert’s Rules. For this reason it is important that you understand and learn to use Robert’s Rules of Order.

Suggested Process for Using Parliamentary Practice Problems

The following suggested outline would enable a club to complete all these problems over a two-year time span. The problems are listed in the approximate order in which they should be taken up by a club. You may want to spend more than one meeting on one of the problems to master it appropriately. New problems should not be taken up until preceding ones are thor­oughly mastered.

First Year

OCTOBER

General parliamentary information................................4

NOVEMBER

Constitution and bylaws.................................................................13

DECEMBER

Order of business.......................................................................................6

JANUARY

Eight steps necessary to put a question before the House...............................................................................................................6

Division of a question..........................................................................7

FEBRUARY

Amending the main motion.......................................................8

MARCH

Aids in disposing of motion—.................................................8

Table, postpone to a set time ...............................................9

APRIL

Aids in disposing of motions continued; to postpone indefinitely............................................................................9

To place in the hands of a committee...........................

MAY

Point of order

To adjourn .........................................................................................................10

JUNE

To reconsider .................................................................................................11 Appeal from decision of chair ............................................10

JULY

To take from the table ....................................................................12

AUGUST

Resolutions

Constitution and bylaws ...............................................................13

SEPTEMBER

Nominations and elections..........................................................15

Second Year

OCTOBER

Election of officers, nominations, and voting..15

NOVEMBER

The previous question ....................................................................16

DECEMBER

To reconsider and have

entered on the minutes..................................................................16

JANUARY

To withdraw a motion......................................................................18

FEBRUARY

To postpone indefinitely...............................................................18

MARCH

Objection to the consideration of the question.......19

APRIL

To refer to a committee...............................................................20

MAY

Advanced problem 1..........................................................................22

JUNE

Advanced problem 2 .......................................................................24

JULY

Advanced problem 3 ........................................................................25

AUGUST

Advanced problem 4........................................................................26

SEPTEMBER

Review......................................................................................................................28

3 Where can I find out more on...?

NOTE. For quick reference, see “Rules for Handling Motions” which appears on pp. 28-29.

Introduce business

Steps necessary to put a question before the House ..........................................................................................................................6

Conduct elections

Nominations, voting...............................................................................15

Defer a matter or kill it

Postpone indefinitely.................................................................18, 25

Table a motion......................................................................................8, 22

Defer action

Postpone to a set time ....................................................................9

Order of business .....................................................................................6

Table ...................................................................................................................8, 22

Divide a complex question

Reconsider and enter on minutes..................................16

Division of a question..........................................................................7

Change or modify

Amend.....................................................................................................8, 22, 25

Let a few attend to a matter

Refer to a committee........................................................................20

Fix a time to attend to a matter

Postpone to a set time......................................................................9

Stop debate and order an immediate vote

Previous question....................................................................................16

Suppress a question

Object to consideration.........................................................19, 22

Postpone indefinitely.................................................................18, 25

Table.....................................................................................................................8, 22

Do something contrary to bylaws or rules

Suspend the rules ...................................................................................12

Prevent a motion from being voted on

Withdraw a motion .............................................................................18

Consider a motion a second time

Take from table............................................................................................12

Reconsider........................................................................................11, 22, 26

Rescind ....................................................................................................................21

Prevent a vote from being final

Move a reconsideration and have motion en­tered on minutes.......................................................................................16

Object to a decision of the Chair or relieve the Chair from responsibility of a decision

Appeal from the decision of the Chair...................10

Ask a question or make a point of order

Question of privilege.................................................................10, 26

Annul some action

Rescind......................................................................................................................21

Prepare a resolution

Form.............................................................................................................................14

Dismiss a meeting

Adjourn....................................................................................................................10

Contest Preamble...................................................................................30

Gavel Games

Scorecard........................................................................................32-33

Gavel Games Rules....................................................................34

Approved list of motions..................................................35

Sample Written Tests..............................................................36-38

TERMS

The House—the club, group or organization.

The Chair—the presiding officer.

Pending—issues or questions before the House.

Majority—more than half the votes cast.

Take precedence over—override and become the last pending question.

Quorum—the number allowed to conduct busi­ness.

Ex officio—meaning “by virtue of office.” Usually a non-voting member.

Before the House—being considered by the group.

Session—in conventions, the several meetings in which one continu­ous routine of business is transacted. In societ­ies, the regular meeting together with its ad­journed meetings, or a special meeting with its adjourned meetings.

Common Questions and Answers

Question. In parliamentary usage, what is the first thing to learn?

Answer. To rise and address the Chair to obtain the floor.

  1. How do you address the Chair?
  2. Madam or Mr. President, or if not the president, Madam or Mr. Chairman or by his special title if s/he has one.
  3. How does the Chair recognize a member and assign him/her the floor?
  4. By calling his/her name. In a 4-H group this is usually the first name of the person.
  5. What is the advantage in obtaining the floor?
  6. The Chair is compelled to defend a member in his right to the floor and to state his motion or opinions.
  7. May a member assigned the floor be interrupted?
  8. Yes, but only if his procedure is out of order.
  9. What is the correct form of a main motion?
  10. “I move that . . .” Do not say, “I move you . . .” or “I make a motion . . .”
  11. What must follow most motions (all main motions)?
  12. A second (another endorsement of the item of business).
  13. Should one rise to second a motion?
  14. No. In large bodies, however, it may be best to rise and without waiting for recognition, say, “Mr. or Madam Presi­dent, I second the motion.”
  15. What is a quorum?
  16. The number of eligible voting members al­lowed to conduct business.
  17. Should it be a majority or minority?
  18. A minority, usually.
  19. May important business be transacted by a minority quorum?
  20. Yes, but it may not be best.
  21. How long may a member of an ordi­nary society talk?
  22. Not longer than 10 minutes nor more than twice to a question and not the second time until all who wish have spoken once.
  23. What should follow the second?
  24. The Chair must state the motion. He should not say, “You have heard the motion.” The Chair may require any motion to be written.
  25. Why state the motion?
  26. Until stated, it does not become the prop­erty of the House and may not be debated, amended, or otherwise acted upon.
  27. How does the Chair state a principal motion?
  28. “It has been moved and seconded that the society (assembly, club, organization, or con­vention) . . .”
  29. What is a main or principal motion?
  30. One that introduces business.
  31. Are all main motions debatable?
  32. Yes.
  33. What should the Chair say after stat­ing the motion?
  34. “Is there any discussion?”
  35. Can members be compelled to vote?
  36. Only in bodies having great power over the members, as in Congress. This is done by ordering the yeas and nays.
  37. Should the Chair stand to state a ques­tion?
  38. Yes, she should stand also to put the ques­tion to vote.
  39. When does the Chair take the vote?
  40. When the organization or club, not some individuals, is ready for it.
  41. What is the best form in taking a vote by acclamation?
  42. All in favor say aye; opposed, no. This is called putting the question. Speak both aye and no distinctly.
  43. May the Chair vote?
  44. Yes, as shown under duties of the presiding officer.

Order of Business

  1. Call to order
  2. Opening exercises—pledge, motto, etc.
  3. Reading of minutes, corrections if needed, approval of minutes
  4. Communications not requiring action (let­ters of appreciation, etc.)
  5. Reports of officers
  6. Reports of standing and special committees
  7. Unfinished business
  • Motions postponed at the last meeting
  • Motions laid on the table at the last meet­ing
  1. New business as introduced
  2. Program
  3. Announcements and Notices
  4. Adjournment

Parliamentary Practice Problems

As you work in your club on learn­ing parliamentary procedure, you may want to use these practice problems. Have a leader (teen or adult) who will explain the problem. The Leader and her helpers should plan their demon­stration before the meeting.

Eight Steps Necessary to Put a Question Before the House

Leader. The eight steps necessary to put a question before the House are:

  1. A member rises and addresses the Chair.
  2. The member is recognized by the Chair.
  3. The member makes the motion.
  4. Another member seconds the mo­tion.
  5. President states the motion to the group.
  6. President calls for discussion.
  7. President takes the vote.
  8. President states the result—those for, and those against the motion.

Demonstration

With the aid of three members, we will demonstrate the correct motion procedure.

First Helper. (Stand.) Mr. President.

President. John.

First Helper. I move that the Cotton­wood 4-H Club conduct a drive to increase our club membership.

President. Is there a second to this mo­tion? (Ask for a second when a motion is not promptly seconded.)

Second Helper. (Do not stand.) I second the motion.

President. The motion before the House is that the Cottonwood 4-H Club conduct a drive to increase our club membership. Is there any discussion?

First Helper. (Stand.) Mr. President.

President. John.

7 First Helper. I believe it is necessary to make a special effort to see the boys and girls of this community and explain the good things they will receive as 4-H Club members.

Third Helper. (Stand.) Mr. President.

President. Howard.

Third Helper. We have enough members in our club. An increase in numbers of members will bring in boys and girls not especially interested and will make more work for the leaders.

President. Is there any more discussion? The motion is that the Cottonwood 4-H Club conduct a drive to increase our club membership. All in favor say aye; all opposed, no.

Second Helper. (Stand.) Mr. President.

President. Julie.

Second Helper. I call for a division.

Note: This refers to division of the house and is done when a member is not satisfied with the count when the vote has been taken by voice or hand and wishes the vote to be taken again. The President must take an­other vote.

President. (A division of the house having been called for, take a standing vote.) The motion is that the Cottonwood 4-H Club conduct a drive to increase our club membership. All in favor, stand. Be seated. All opposed, stand. Be seated. Fifteen in favor; twelve opposed. The Cottonwood 4-H Club will conduct a drive to increase the mem­bership.

Division of the Question

Leader. The object of the divi­sion of the question is to avoid voting on too many independent questions at one time. If a motion when made consists of two or more independent

items of business, connected by con­junctions, it may be best to consider them separately as the club may wish to adopt only part of them. The re­quest for the division of the motion may be made by an individual, or it may be by motion. If an individual makes the request, she would say, “I call for a division of the motion.”

If the request is in the form of a motion:

  • it is not debatable
  • it may be amended
  • it requires a majority vote
  • it may not be reconsidered.

President. The motion before the club is that the Lucky Leaf 4-H Club accept William Smith as a member and hold a picnic next Saturday afternoon, the boys to supply the food and the girls the transportation, and that the picnic be held at John’s at exactly 5:30 p. m.

First Helper. (Stand.) Mr. President.

President. Paul.

First Helper. I request a division of the question.

President. The Secretary will divide the question into independent propositions for action.

NOTE. The original motion to adopt now applies to each part.

Secretary. The motion before the House is that the Lucky Leaf 4-H Club accept William Smith as a member.

First Helper. I second the motion.

President. Is there any discussion?

Second Helper. (Stand.) Mr. President.

President. Jill.

consists of two or more independent items of business, connected by con­junctions, it may be best to consider them separately as the club may wish to adopt only part of them. The re­quest for the division of the motion may be made by an individual, or it may be by motion. If an individual makes the request, she would say, “I call for a division of the motion.”

If the request is in the form of a motion:

  • it is not debatable
  • it may be amended
  • it requires a majority vote
  • it may not be reconsidered.

President. The motion before the club is that the Lucky Leaf 4-H Club accept William Smith as a member and hold a picnic next Saturday afternoon, the boys to supply the food and the girls the transportation, and that the picnic be held at John’s at exactly 5:30 p. m.

First Helper. (Stand.) Mr. President.

President. Paul.

First Helper. I request a division of the question.

President. The Secretary will divide the question into independent propositions for action.

NOTE. The original motion to adopt now applies to each part.

Secretary. The motion before the House is that the Lucky Leaf 4-H Club accept William Smith as a member.

First Helper. I second the motion.

President. Is there any discussion?

Second Helper. (Stand.) Mr. President.

President. Jill.8

Second Helper. William is a great kid. He will do his best at everything, and I think the club will profit greatly by having him as a member.

President. Is there any further discus­sion? (Pause.) If not, all in favor of the motion to accept William Smith as a member, stand. Opposed, stand. The vote is favorable and the club accepts William Smith as a member.

NOTE. The secretary then reads the next part and each part is consid­ered as a distinct motion. The sepa­rate parts may be amended. See the next problem for this procedure.

Amending the Main Motion

Leader. The object of amend­ing the main motion is to change it and make it more satisfactory to the group.

  • It requires a second.
  • It is debatable, debate being con­fined to the amendment.
  • It may be amended.
  • It requires a majority vote. It may be reconsidered.

President. It has been moved and sec­onded that the Sunshine 4-H Club buy a used CD player. Is there any discus­sion?

Second Helper. (Stand.) Mr. President.

President. Francis.

Second Helper. I move to amend the motion by striking out the word “used” and inserting the word “new.”

First Helper. I second the amendment.

President. It has been moved and sec­onded to amend the motion by striking out the word “used” and inserting the

First Helper. (Stand.) I want the club to have a new machine. A used one is not reliable.

President. Is there any more discussion? All in favor of the amendment, stand; opposed, stand. The amendment is car­ried. The motion now before the club is that the Sunshine 4-H Club buy a NEW CD player. Is there any discus­sion? (Pause.) All in favor of the mo­tion, stand; opposed, stand. The motion is carried. The Sunshine 4-H Club will buy a new CD player.

Leader. (Discuss this procedure fully.) An amendment may be stated as follows: I move to amend by—

  • Inserting the word “_____” before the word “_____”
  • Striking out the word “_____”
  • Striking out the word “_____” and inserting “_____”
  • Substituting the motion “_____” for motion “_____”

If the amendment carries, the main motion becomes the motion as amended. If lost, the main motion is unaffected.

To Lay on the Table

Leader. The object of the mo­tion “to lay on the table” is to lay aside temporarily the pending busi­ness. Making this motion allows the group to put aside a pending question temporarily when something else of immediate urgency has arisen. This motion is commonly misused in many groups in place of the motion to Post­pone Indefinitely or to Postpone to a Certain Time. This motion violates the rights of the minority if it is used for any other purpose that stated above. This motion is “out of order” if the intent is to kill or avoid dealing with a question before the group. For these reasons:

9 • It is not debatable and requires a second.

  • It may not be amended.
  • It requires a majority vote.
  • It may not be reconsidered.

President. The motion before the club is that the Willing Workers 4-H Club buy a dog for use as a mascot. (After heated discussion by two or three helpers, continue.)

First Helper. Mr. President.

President. Helen.

First Helper. I move that the motion be laid on the table.

Second Helper. I second the motion.

President. It has been moved and sec­onded that the motion be laid on the table. (Take vote.)

Leader. (Discuss this parliamentary problem fully and point out that a question tabled and not taken from the table at the same or the follow­ing meeting is lost. Also explain that “tabling” should seldom or never be used by a minority in an effort to defeat a proposition (refer to notes above). Refer to the list of motions that may not be tabled on page 8 and 9. )

To Postpone Indefinitely and Postpone to a Certain Time

Leader. The object of postpon­ing indefinitely is to defer action on a motion. Its adoption kills the main motion (for the duration of the ses­sion) and avoids a direct vote on the question. It is useful in disposing of a badly chosen main motion that can­not be either adopted or expressly rejected without possible undesir­able consequences. This motion takes precedence over nothing except the main question and is the lowest-rank­ing subsidiary motion.

  • It requires a second and is debat­able.
  • It cannot be amended.
  • It may be reconsidered.
  • It is out of order when another has the floor.
  • It requires a majority vote.

To postpone to a definite time, however, can be made to put off ac­tion on a motion until a more conve­nient time. This motion can be moved regardless of how much debate has already occurred. A question may be postponed either so that it may be considered at another time or be­cause debate has shown reasons for holding off a decision until later.

  • It requires a second and is debat­able.
  • It is amendable as to the time to which the main motion is to be postponed.
  • It may be reconsidered.
  • It is out of order when another has the floor.
  • It requires a majority vote.

President. It has been moved and sec­onded that the Happy Hustlers 4-H Club hold their annual picnic at Mr. Smith’s home on June 8. Are there any remarks?

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. John.

First Helper. Mr. Smith is sick, so I do not think it advisable to hold a picnic at his home on June 8; therefore, I move to postpone the motion until our regular meeting next month.

Second Helper. I second the motion.

President. The motion before the club is that we postpone the motion that the Happy Hustlers 4-H Club hold their annual picnic at Mr. Smith’s home on June 8.

Note: This motion is debatable to a limited extent. When passed it becomes unfinished business for the next meeting.

President. (Take the vote.)

Leader. (Point out that a ques­tion may not be postponed to a time beyond the next regular meeting. A motion may not be taken up before the time to which it was postponed except by reconsideration, suspension of the rules, or general consent.)

Point of Order, Adjournment

Leader. The purpose of raising a point of order is to enforce the rules. A person would make this motion to raise a question of propriety in how business is being conducted or if the rules are being violated.

  • It does not require a second.
  • It is not debatable, except the Chair may seek the advice of the club.
  • It may not be amended.
  • It requires a majority vote when submitted to the club.
  • It may not be reconsidered.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Joanne.

First Helper. I move we adjourn.

Second Helper. I second the motion.

Third Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Wilbur.

Third Helper. I cannot see the reason for adjournment at this time. Our business is only half finished.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. John.

First Helper. I rise

President. Please state your point.

First Helper. The motion to adjourn is not debatable and this motion before the club must be voted upon immedi­ately.

President. The point is well taken. It has been moved and seconded that the Galata 4-H Club adjourn. All in favor, stand; opposed, stand. The Galata 4-H Club is adjourned.

Appeal From the Decision of the Chair

Leader. By electing a presiding officer, a group delegates to him or her the authority and duty to make necessary rulings on questions of parliamentary procedure. But any two members have the right to appeal from his decision on such a question.

If the Chair rules unfavorably on a point of order, an appeal may be made from the decision of the Chair if at least two members (one who makes the motion, the other who seconds it) still feels that he is correct. Without waiting to be recognized by the Chairman, the member rises as soon as the decision is made, even though another member has the floor.

  • It is debatable.
  • It cannot be used on rulings about which there can be only one pos­sible decision.
  • It must be made at the time of the ruling in question.
  • It must be seconded.
  • It cannot be amended.
  • It can be reconsidered.

First Helper. Mr. President, I appeal from the decision of the Chair. (The appeal must be seconded.)

Second Helper. I second the appeal.

President. (State clearly the question at issue and reasons for the decision if 11 necessary.) The question is, “Shall the decision of the Chair be upheld as the judgment of this club?” Those in favor say aye; those opposed, no. The ayes have it and the decision of the Chair is upheld, or, the nays have it and the decision of the Chair is reversed.

Motion to Reconsider

Leader. This motion is a uniquely American motion and enables a ma­jority in a group—within a limited time and without notice—to bring back for further consideration a motion that has already been voted upon. The goal of a motion to reconsider is to bring an item of business back before the group for discussion and another vote. The purpose of reconsidering a vote is to permit correction of hasty, ill-advised, or erroneous action, or to take into account added information or a changed situation that has de­veloped since the original vote on the motion.

  • It requires a second.
  • It is debatable if the motion to be reconsidered is debatable.
  • It may not be amended.
  • It requires a majority vote.
  • It must be introduced by a member who voted on the winning side.
  • It may not be reconsidered.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Tom.

First Helper. I move that the Pleasant Valley 4-H Club charge each member dues of $5.00 for this year.

Second Helper. I second the motion.

President. It has been moved and sec­onded that the Pleasant Valley 4-H Club charge each member dues of $5.00 for First Helper. (Discuss the motion.)

President. The motion before the club is that the Pleasant Valley 4-H Club charge each member dues of $5.00 for this year. All in favor, stand; opposed, stand. Count the vote. Motion carried.

Second Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Bobbi.

Second Helper. I move to reconsider the vote taken on the last motion.

President. Did you cast your vote on the side receiving the most votes?

Second Helper. I did.

President. Since you voted on the pre­vailing side, it is proper for you to make the motion. The motion before the House is to reconsider the mo­tion that the Pleasant Valley 4-H Club charge each member dues of $5.00 for the club year. Do I hear a second?

Third Helper. I second the motion.

President. The motion is to reconsider the motion that the Pleasant Valley 4-H Club charge each member dues of $5.00 for the club year. Is there any discussion?

Second Helper. (Discuss reasons for wishing to reconsider.)

NOTE: A simple majority is required to reconsider a motion, regardless of the vote necessary to adopt the motion reconsidered.

President. All in favor of reconsidering the vote on the motion say aye; those opposed, no. The motion to reconsider is carried; therefore the motion that each member pay dues of $5.00 this year is open for discussion. Will the Secretary please read the motion.

To Take From the Table

Leader. To take from the table is to bring the question before the club again.

  • It requires a second. It is not debat­able.
  • It requires a majority vote.
  • It cannot be amended.
  • It cannot be reconsidered.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Cathy.

First Helper. I move to take from the table the motion that the Full-of-Fun 4-H Club buy a dog for a mascot.

Second Helper. I second the motion.

President. The motion before the club is that we take from the table the mo­tion that the Full-of-Fun 4-H Club buy a dog for a mascot. All in favor, stand; opposed, stand. In favor, 20; opposed, 10. Since the motion to take from the table is carried, the motion before the club now is that the Full-of-Fun 4-H Club buy a dog for a mascot. Is there any discussion?

First Helper. (Stand.) Mr. President.

President. John.

John. (Discuss the motion.)

President. Is there any discussion? (Pause.) The motion before the club is that the Full-of-Fun 4-H Club buy a dog for a mascot. All in favor, stand; opposed, stand. In favor, 5; opposed, 25. The motion is defeated.

Leader. If the motion to take from the table is defeated, it can be put before the same meeting after some other business has been transacted. A question laid on the table must be taken up and disposed of during the next regular meeting; otherwise the motion dies. If the motion to take from the table carries, the original motion comes back to the club in the form in which it was tabled. The original motion may be debated upon and then put before the House in the regular motion procedure and either passed or voted down.

To Suspend the Rules

Leader. The object of suspend­ing rules is to allow the club to take action that is prohibited by the rules. The rules may be suspended by general consent, but if one member objects, a motion must be made and passed by a two-thirds vote.

  • A motion to suspend the rules re­quires a second.
  • It is not debatable.
  • It may not be amended.
  • It requires a two-thirds vote.
  • It may not be reconsidered.

The rules are suspended for a single purpose, as the motion states, and no other business may be trans­acted under the one suspension.

After the motion to suspend the rules has carried, the member who made the motion has the first right to the floor to make a motion or to discuss it.

The following rules may be sus­pended:

  • To adopt a question without debate.
  • To take a question from the table when the motion to do so is not in order (such as when someone has the floor).
  • To take up a question before the time to which it has been post­poned.
  • To make an order of the day a “spe­cial order,” which means that it is made with the stipulation that any rules interfering with its consider­ation at a specific time will be sus­pended.
  • To take action contrary to standing rules (such as when the meetings are held, time at which meetings will begin). Standing rules are not bylaws but adopted individually and relate to the administration of a group.

A motion to initiate Tom Brown was laid on the table until the next regular meeting. I wish to take this motion off the table before the scheduled time.

John. (Stand.) Mr. President.

President. John.

John. I move that the rules be suspend­ed in order that the motion that the club initiateTom Brown be voted on immediately.

Pete. I second the motion.

President. The motion before the club is to suspend the rules in order that the motion to initiate Tom Brown be voted on immediately. All in favor, stand; opposed, stand. Two thirds of those present having voted in favor of the motion, it is carried. Now the mo­tion before the club is to initiate Tom Brown. All in favor say aye; opposed, no.

Leader. (Discuss the purpose and use of this procedure.) The following items cannot be suspended:

  1. The Constitution can never be sus­pended, nor can the Bylaws, unless suspension of the latter is spe­cifically provided for in one of the Bylaws.
  2. No rule protecting absentees can be suspended, nor can a rule requiring that a vote be taken by ballot be suspended in order to hasten mat­ters.
  3. Nothing that requires previous notice and a two-thirds vote for its amendment can be suspended by less than a two-thirds vote.
  4. No rule can be suspended when the negative vote is as large as the minority protected by the rule.

Quorum

After the secretary calls the roll, the president is notified whether or not a quorum is present. If a quorum is not present, the meeting is ad­journed or prevented from transact­ing official business.

If during an official meeting enough people leave so that a quo­rum is not present, official business can be transacted. The only way to prevent official business from being transacted under the above condi­tions is to move for a new roll call. If, after the new roll call, it is found there is not a quorum, the meeting is ad­journed.

Constitution and Bylaws

The Constitution usually contains six articles, divided into sections. It sets forth the name and purpose of the organization and determines the membership. It establishes the offices, the method of election, the time of meeting, and the way to amend the Constitution.

See the sample Constitution in the Montana 4-H Club Secretary’s Record Book (2FM045S). Study it for points mentioned above.

Permanent changes require previ­ous notice to members and a two-thirds vote. Read and submit any amendment desired at the regular business meeting preceding the one at which it will be voted on.

The Bylaws contain details of organization, such as points relating to membership (honorary and associate), 14 quorum, time of meeting, nature of program, list of officers, duties of officers, committees, dues, if any, and amendments. An example of club bylaws is also found in the Montana 4-H Club Secretary’s Record Book (2FM045S).

Resolutions

Every resolution should be in writ­ing. A resolution is always a main mo­tion. A resolution always begins with the word “Resolved.” When a member wishes to present a resolution after obtaining the floor, he says, “I move the adoption of the following resolu­tion.”

Reasons for the resolution, if needed, are usually stated in a pre­amble. Each clause of the preamble constitutes a paragraph beginning with “Whereas.” The preamble is al­ways amended last, as changes in the resolution may require changes in the preamble.

The preamble should never con­tain a period but each paragraph should close with a comma or semi­colon, followed by “and,” except the last paragraph which should close with the word “therefore’’ or “there­fore be it resolved. . .”

Sample Resolution

Whereas, we consider the 4-H Club the best organization for all boys and girls; and

Whereas, the membership is not large enough in this community; therefore

Resolved: That it is the opinion of this club that ample opportunity be given for all boys and girls, as well as the parents, in this community to learn about opportunities in the 4-H Club.

Second Year’s Program

15 Election of Officers—Nominations—Voting

Nominations may be made from the floor by members, by a nominat­ing committee, or by ballot. A motion provides the method. Constitutions or Bylaws usually specify conditions relating to nominations.

If nominations have been made by the nominating committee, the presid­ing officer should ask if there are any other nominations before proceeding to an election. If there is no response, he declares the nominations closed. In large clubs, it is customary to make a motion to close nominations, but until a reasonable time has been given, this motion is not in order. Typically, the president asks for nominations three times before declaring nominations closed.

  • The motion to close nominations requires a second.
  • it cannot be debated
  • it requires a two thirds vote as it deprives members of one of their rights.
  • If it is desired to reopen nomina­tions, it may be done by a majority vote. This motion is undebatable.

Nominations need not be seconded

Officers may be elected one at a time or all at one time. If the Bylaws prescribe the method, it must be fol­lowed. Electing officers all at one time saves time, but has a serious objection when there is more than one nominee for each office; those not elected for one office cannot be nominated for any other. In small groups it is usually better to elect one officer at a time.

The vote is taken on nominees in the order in which they were nomi­nated.

Nominations—Voting

The nominations are announced by the presiding officer and usually the vote is taken by ballot.

The method of voting may be done according to the wishes of the organization unless the Bylaws specify the method to be followed.

The presiding officer appoints the tellers to collect the ballots and al­ways asks if all members have voted before she directs the count to be made.

Even if there is only one nominee for each office and none is added from the floor, the vote is taken on each office. It is not in order to take a single vote on the group at one time.

The presiding officer always has the privilege to vote by ballot and should vote at the same time as other members. In case of a tie when the vote is taken by show of hands or standing vote, she may vote to break the tie. In no case is he allowed to vote twice—first to make a tie and then to break it.

While it is the duty for every member to vote, a member cannot be compelled to do so unless the Bylaws so state.

In Congress where the public wish­es to know how the members voted, the vote is taken by roll call. The presiding officer says: “As many as are in favor of the adoption of this reso­lution will, as their names are called, answer yes; opposed, answer no.”

Parliamentary Practice Problems

16 The Previous Question

Leader. To stop debate and order an immediate vote on a question, cor­rect procedure is to say, “I move the previous question.” This motion, when seconded and carried by a two-thirds vote, forces an immediate vote.

  • It requires a second.
  • It is not debatable.
  • It may not be amended.
  • It requires a two-thirds vote to carry.
  • It may be reconsidered.

Many club members are under the impression that a motion can be brought to vote when someone in the group calls “Question.” Calling “Ques­tion” does not bring the motion to vote nor does it stop discussion.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Sam.

First Helper. I move that the Silver Creek 4-H Club increase its member­ship to 100 for the next year.

Second Helper. I second the motion.

Third Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Debbie.

Third Helper. I am not in favor of making a wholesale membership drive. Quality is more important than quantity. It is a good idea to increase our membership, and I think we can, but I do not like the idea of a set number.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Sam.

First Helper. We will never get any place unless goals are set. Just because a definite number has been set, there is no reason we need to sacrifice quality. I think Debbie has the wrong viewpoint on this issue.

Second Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Everett.

Second Helper. I move the previous question.

First Helper. I second the motion.

President. The previous question has been moved and seconded on the mo­tion that the Silver Creek 4-H Club increase its membership to 100 for the next year. All in favor of ordering the previous question on the stated motion, stand; opposed, stand. As two-thirds have voted in favor of the previous question. It is carried.

The motion before the club is that the Silver Creek 4-H Club increase its membership to 100 for the next year. All in favor, rise; opposed, rise. The motion is carried.

Note: In this motion only the usual majority vote is required.

Leader. (Impress the group with the importance of the motion and the need of cooperation to bring about the desired results.)

To Reconsider and Have Entered on the Minutes

Leader. The procedure to re­consider and have entered on the minutes is used when it is desired to prevent the action on the main mo­tion from becoming final until another meeting or another day. It is to pre­vent a temporary and unrepresenta­tive majority from carrying out an action that it is believed the majority will not approve. This is needed in large societies with frequent meetings and small quorums when the atten­dance in many cases does not exceed 10% of the membership. As the mo­tion to reconsider and have entered on the minutes may be made only by one who voted on the winning side, a member desiring to make the motion should vote with the majority even though opposed to its action, or if he has already voted with the losing side, he may, before the result is an­nounced, change his vote.

Having the motion placed on the minutes gives those who are opposed to the motion a chance to get a large number of their supporters in atten­dance at the next meeting. It requires a majority vote even when reconsid­ering a motion that required a two-thirds vote.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Walter.

First Helper. I move that the Busy Bees 4-H Club hold a picnic May 3.

Second Helper. I second the motion.

President. It has been moved and sec­onded that the Busy Bees 4-H Club hold a picnic May 3. Is there any dis­cussion?

Third Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Eugene.

Third Helper. It is too early to have pic­nics. The weather at that time is usu­ally unfavorable and will prevent having a real picnic program.

Second Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Bill.

Fourth Helper. There is just a small number present, and I feel an activity such as a picnic should not be decided this evening.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Walter.

First Helper. If the other members do not attend meetings they cannot expect to have much to say about the business of the club. I want a picnic regardless of what the absent mem­bers think about it.

Fourth Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Bill.

Fourth Helper. It is an injustice to the absent members.

President. Is there any more discussion? Those in favor of the motion, stand; opposed, stand. Motion carried.

Fourth Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Bill.

Fourth Helper. I move to reconsider the motion and have it entered on the minutes.

Third Helper. I second the motion.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Walter.

First Helper. I rise to a point of order.

President. State your point.

First Helper. Did Bill cast his vote on the losing side?

Fourth Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Bill.

Fourth Helper. I cast my vote on the winning side. President. Bill is in order. The question is to reconsider and have entered on the minutes the motion that the Busy Bees 4-H Club hold a picnic May 3. Is there any discussion? All in favor, stand; opposed, stand. Motion carried. The question will be entered on the minutes to be reconsidered at the next meet­ing.

Leader. (Discuss the importance of the motion and what future action should be taken.)

To Withdraw a Motion

Leader. The object of withdrawing a motion is to prevent the vote and keep the motion off the records.

  • It does not require a second.
  • It is not debatable and cannot be amended.
  • It requires a majority vote.

Before a motion has been stated by the Chair, its maker may withdraw or change it as suggested. If changed, the second may be withdrawn. The President can offer help to younger members to improve their motions before restating the motion.

After a motion has been stated, it belongs to the assembly. It may then be withdrawn or changed only if there is no objection or if the assem­bly, by a majority vote, permits it. Any motion may be withdrawn.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Mary.

First Helper. I move that the Jolly Jays 4-H Club charge dues of $3.00 for the coming year.

Second Helper. I second the motion.

President. It has been moved and sec­onded that the Jolly Jays 4-H Club charge dues of $3.00 for the coming year. First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Mary.

First Helper. I wish to withdraw my mo­tion.

Third Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Harry.

Third Helper. I object.

President. There is an objection to with­drawing the motion. It shall be put to the vote of the club. All in favor of granting the privilege of withdrawing the motion, stand; opposed, stand. The majority is in favor and the privilege is granted.

Leader. (Make it clear that a mo­tion and all points connected with it may be withdrawn any time before voting on the question is begun.)

To Postpone Indefinitely

Leader. The object of postponing a motion indefinitely is to reject the main motion when the strength of the vote for it is uncertain, and the op­posing side wishes to find this out. It also gives a member another chance to talk after he has exhausted his right to debate.

  • It requires a second.
  • It requires a majority vote.

If the motion to postpone is lost, it may not be renewed or reconsidered, and the main motion comes back to its original form and can be amended and have all other privileges of a main motion. If the postponement is car­ried, the main motion is rejected for the present meeting unless the vote is reconsidered during the present or next business session. First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Harold.

First Helper. I move that the Lucky Leaf 4-H Club hold a skating party Friday evening.

Second Helper. I second the motion.

Third Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Vernon.

Third Helper. I believe it is a good idea to hold a skating party.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Harold.

First Helper. A social time once in a while is necessary for the life of the club, so I hope that everyone will vote for it.

Fourth Helper. (Rise.) I am not in favor of the skating party Friday evening because I will be unable to attend; therefore, Mr. President, I move to postpone the question indefinitely.

Fifth Helper. I second the motion.

President. The motion before the club is to postpone indefinitely the motion that the club hold a skating party Fri­day evening. Is there any discussion?

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Harold.

First Helper. I cannot understand why one member should be selfish enough to want the party postponed because he cannot be there.

Fourth Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. John.

Fourth Helper. I do not wish it under­stood that it is from a selfish view­point that I wish to have the party postponed, but I think others here feel the same way about it but are cautious about discussing it.

President. All in favor of postponing indefinitely the motion that the club hold a skating party, stand; opposed, stand. Four in favor; six opposed

The motion to postpone indefinitely is defeated. The motion before the club is that we hold a skating party Friday evening. Is there any discussion?

Second Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Tom.

Second Helper. I believe that arrange­ments can be made whereby every member can be present.

President. All in favor, stand; opposed, stand. The motion is carried. We will hold the skating party.

Leader. (Discuss the motion and its importance to the club.)

Objection to the Consideration of the Question

Leader. The purpose of an objec­tion to the consideration of the ques­tion is to avoid questions unprofitable and irrelevant.

  • It does not require a second. It is not debatable.
  • It may not be amended.
  • It requires a two-thirds negative vote. It may be reconsidered.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Tom.

First Helper. I move that the Happy Hustlers 4-H Club invite the Busy Bee 4-H Club to combine into one club for the next year. 20 Second Helper. I second the motion.

Third Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. James.

Third Helper. I object to the consider­ation of the motion.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Tom.

First Helper. I rise to a point of order.

President. State your point.

First Helper. There is a motion before the House.

President. Tom, your point is not well taken. The objection to the consider­ation is in order. This objection may be raised before there is any debate on the main motion and may be made when another has the floor. It cannot be de­bated or amended and must be put to a vote immediately. The consideration of the question has been objected to. All in favor of considering the question, stand; opposed, stand.

There being two-thirds opposed, the main motion will not be considered.

NOTE. If the motion had passed, the President would announce, “There being less than two-thirds opposed, the objection is not sustained and the question is before the club.”

Leader. (Explain that it was decid­ed by a two-thirds negative vote not to consider the main motion; there­fore, the whole matter is dismissed for the present session. The same mo­tion may be introduced at any other meeting. The object of this motion is to avoid any item of business that may be unprofitable or cause dissen­sion in the club. This objection cannot be applied to amendments, bylaws, or reports of committees.)

To Refer to a Committee

Leader. The object of referring to a committee is to commit or recom­mend to a standing or special com­mittee a question that may be more carefully investigated and put into better shape for the group to con­sider than can be done in the group itself.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Bob.

First Helper. I move that the Willing Workers 4-H Club make arrangements with the Grange to use the Grange Hall as a meeting place.

Second Helper. I second the motion.

President. It has been moved and sec­onded that the Willing Workers 4-H Club make arrangements with the Grange to use the Grange Hall as a meeting place. Is there any discussion?

Third Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Helen.

Third Helper. I believe it is impossible to come to a conclusion on this important motion without further investigation. There may be other places available for meetings. In order that the club may get all the information necessary, I move that the motion be referred to a committee.

President. To what committee shall the motion be referred?

Third Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Helen.

Third Helper. I wish to add to my motion the words “of three to be appointed by the President.”

President. It has been moved and sec­onded that the motion before the club 21 be referred to a committee of three appointed by the President.

Second Helper. I second the motion.

President. Is there any discussion? All in favor, stand; opposed, stand. Motion carried.

Note: By securing the addition to the motion before stating the motion, the President saved extra voting or amendments to this motion.

Leader. (Discuss the importance of this motion and its relationship to the club.)

To Rescind a Motion

Leader. The purpose of the mo­tion to rescind or repeal is not to reconsider the vote upon a motion, but to render ineffective the vote for­merly taken on it.

A motion previously made and voted on may be reconsidered the day it was voted on or the following meeting day. After that, the motion to rescind is in order, but a motion to reconsider is out of order.

The motion to rescind may be ap­plied to the vote on all main motions, questions of privileges and appeals. A motion to rescind is not in order if, as a result of a vote, something has been done which cannot be undone, or a resignation has been acted upon, or some member has been elected to or expelled from membership or office, and has been notified of the fact.

If a motion is to be rescinded, notice must be given at a preceding meeting or in the call for the meeting; or if such notice has not been given, a two-thirds vote of those voting or a majority vote of the entire member­ship is necessary. If notice is given, a regular majority vote is required.

First Helper. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. John.

First Helper. I move to rescind the motion passed at our last meeting in December by which this organization went on record as being opposed to help furnish a community meeting hall.

Second Helper. I second the motion.

President. It has been moved and sec­onded that the club rescind the motion passed at our meeting in December by which this organization went on record as being opposed to help fur­nish a community meeting hall. Will the Secretary please read the motion referred to?

Secretary. (Find and read the motion.)

President. Is there any discussion?

First Helper. I think that people general­ly are favorable to a community meet­ing place and that we should be, too.

Second Helper. I believe that since this has become a community project we should help, too.

President. If there is no further dis­cussion, all in favor of the motion to rescind this motion, stand; opposed, stand. Two-thirds of the members present favor rescinding this motion, so the motion is rescinded and should be so marked by the Secretary.

Advanced Parliamentary Practice Problems

22 Problem 1

This problem includes practice in the use of the previous question on pending amendments, objection to reconsideration of a question, and tabling a motion.

The motion, “I move the previous question,” cuts off all debate on both amendments and motion. If a member wishes to order or force a vote on the amendment only, he says, “I move the previous question on the amend­ment.” The vote is taken on the previ­ous question motion. If it carries, the vote is then taken, first on the amend­ment to the amendment, if there is one, then on the amendment. This leaves the motion in the same posi­tion it was before the previous ques­tion was ordered.

Helen. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Helen.

Helen. I move that all 4-H Club girls wear uniform dresses.

Bill. I second the motion.

NOTE: Amend this motion by inserting “green” after uniform; the amendment to the amendment by inserting “wool” after green.

Grace. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Grace.

Grace. I am not in favor of uniform dresses for school.

President. The member is out of order. Remarks should be on the amendment to the amendment limiting the discus­sion on the material to be used. Pete. (Rise.) Mr. President, I rise to a parliamentary inquiry.

President. State the inquiry.

Pete. Is it not practically impossible to speak on the amendment without also including the original motion?

President. While amendments are pend­ing, the debate can relate only to the amendment, or it may include the amendment and the motion only so far as a discussion of the amendment involves a discussion of the amendment and the motion.

Grace. I move the previous question on the amendments.

Helen. I second the motion.

President. The previous question has been moved and seconded. This re­quires a two-thirds vote. All in favor of the previous question, stand; op­posed, stand. (Carry this problem through.)

NOTE: Vote on an amendment to the amendment, then the amendment. If the amendment to the amendment carries, but the amendment does not, both amendments are lost.

Since every member has a right to introduce subjects, it has been pro­vided by parliamentary law that when a question unnecessary or improper comes, a member may object to its consideration. This applies only to motions introducing a new subject. Objection must be made after the question has been stated by the Chair, but before debate, amendment, or another motion is introduced. Objec­tion does not require seconding, can­not be debated or amended, and cuts off debate on the question objected to until settled. It requires a two-thirds vote to carry the objection.

If, however, the question objected to is not seconded, there is no need of voting on the objection, for the “motion is lost for want of a second.”

Sometimes it is desirable to put a question aside to be voted on later. To do this a member can “move to lay the question on the table,” and it re­mains there until taken from the table.

The motion to lay on the table ap­plies to nearly all parliamentary ques­tions. The following questions cannot be laid on the table:

  • To adjourn
  • To fix the time at which to adjourn
  • To lay on the table
  • Questions as to priority of business
  • To take from the table

To lay on the table cannot be amended or debated and requires just a majority vote. When the motion carries, it cannot be reconsidered, but may be taken from the table. When the motion is lost, it may be reconsid­ered.

When an amendment is tabled, the original question is tabled too.

John. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. John.

John. I move that all nations disarm as the only means of permanent peace.

Helen. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Helen.

Helen. I move to amend the motion by striking out the word “disarm” and inserting “form a World Court.”

Bill. I second the motion.

President. (State the question.) John. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. John.

John. I move the amendment be laid on the table.

Pete. I second the motion.

President. It is moved and seconded that the amendment be laid on the table.

John. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. John.

John. I think the amendment should be voted on.

President. John is out of order. The question cannot now be debated as the motion to “lay on the table” is before the club.

John. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. John.

John. I move to amend the motion to lay on the table by adding the words “until next week.”

President. John is out of order. A motion to lay on the table cannot be amended.

NOTE. The club should vote on the question to lay on the table. If it is passed, no further discussion is in order.

Pete. (Rise.) Mr. President.

President. Pete.

Pete. I move to adjourn.

John. (Rise.) Mr. President.

John. I move we lay the motion to ad­journ on the table.

President. The motion to adjourn can­not be laid on the table. (Take vote on adjournment. )

24 Problem 2

In this problem a number of con­ventional points such as addressing the Chair and being recognized will not be recorded; however, in giving the problem these steps must not be omitted. It is thought by this time the club members are well informed in the rudiments of parliamentary pro­cedure.

Practice is provided in doubting a vote, reconsideration of an amend­ment, and adjournment.

If any member is not satisfied with the results of a vote, he may at once rise and say, “Mr. President, I call for a division,” or “I call for a standing vote.” This is done when the voting by ac­clamation seems close and a member doubts the accuracy of the decision. A standing vote can be counted ex­actly and is usually more deliberate. The vote should be announced by the Chair, but counted by the secretary who reports to the President.

EXAMPLE: A vote has just been taken on a motion to abolish final examinations from schools.

John. Mr. President, I call for a division.

President. A division has been called for. The motion is that finals, etc.

John. Mr. President, I believe finals are…

President. The member is out of order. No debate can interfere with the veri­fication of a vote. All in favor of the motion, stand; all opposed, stand.

NOTE. If all members have not voted, a member who voted may call for a full standing vote. Then all mem­bers are required to vote one way or another.

An amendment voted on and lost cannot be renewed during the same session.

The amendment, voted on and carried, cannot be changed during the same session.

When a group wishes to change or reverse any action previously taken on an amendment, the usual course is to reconsider the amendment. This is in order only when the motion to be amended is before the house.

Amendments of an original mo­tion are called primary or first-degree amendments.

Amendments to amendments are called secondary amendments. Every amendment of the first degree can be amended.

In order for the amendment to be reconsidered after it is voted on, the original motion must be reconsidered.

EXAMPLE. Use the previous mo­tion that final examinations be abol­ished from schools. An amendment was suggested and defeated that finals be abolished from state high schools.

John. (Starts to discuss subject. )

President. John is out of order. The mo­tion has been voted on and therefore cannot be debated.

Pete. I move to amend the motion by inserting the word “high” before the word “schools” in the original motion.

President. The member is out of order. A motion that has carried cannot be amended unless reconsidered.

John. I move to reconsider the amend­ment.

President. This motion is out of order. We cannot reconsider an amendment until the original motion is reconsid­ered.

Pete. I move we reconsider the original motion.

John. I second the motion. President. (Put motion to reconsider to vote.) Motion carried. The secretary will read the original motion. Is there any discussion?

John. I move we insert the word “high” in the phrase “from schools”.

President. This motion is out of order. An amendment lost cannot be renewed during the same session.

Helen. I move to reconsider the amend­ment.

NOTE. This is in order and discus­sion may proceed.

A motion to adjourn takes prece­dence over all other parliamentary questions, but is out of order:

  • While another member has the floor.
  • When a privileged motion to fix the time to which to adjourn is pending.
  • While a motion to reconsider is being made, to be entered on the minutes for future action.
  • While verifying a vote.
  • While the Chair is stating a question.
  • After the motion to adjourn has been lost. It cannot be renewed until after some business or debate has been conducted.

Before moving to adjourn, a mem­ber must have recognition from the Chair. The motion must be seconded. It cannot be amended or debated.

Problem 3

This problem includes practice in indefinite postponement and the previous question applied to a motion and its amendments. To postpone in­definitely is in order only when a prin­cipal motion or a question of privilege is before the assembly. The motion is debatable and opens the original or main motion to debate. To postpone indefinitely cannot be amended.

This motion can be reconsidered. If passed, this main motion (unless re­considered) is put aside for the entire session. If lost, the motion is just as it was.

EXAMPLE. It has been moved that the members of the club shall wear shorts on all hikes or outdoor activi­ties.

John. I move the motion be postponed indefinitely.

Helen. I second the motion.

President. Are you ready for the ques­tion?

Pete. I move we amend the motion by striking out the words “postponed indefinitely” and inserting “postponed until two o’clock tomorrow.”

President. The motion is out of order as a motion to “postpone indefinitely” can­not be amended.

President. (Allow discussion but watch for a “point of order.”)

John. I move the previous question.

President. The previous question has been moved and seconded. This re­quires a two-thirds vote. All in favor of ordering the previous question on the motion to postpone indefinitely, stand; all opposed, stand.

Helen. I rise to ask a question.

President. State your question.

Helen. As the previous question was not limited by the mover to the motion to postpone, does it not apply to the mo­tion also?

President. If the previous question is ordered while the motion to “postpone indefinitely” is before the assembly, it applies only to that motion. 26 EXAMPLE. Assume that the mo­tion to postpone is lost, and the ques­tion is again before the assembly.

John. I move to amend the motion by inserting the words “if the weather is bad” after outdoor activities.

Pete. Second the motion.

President. (Repeat the motion to amend.) Are you ready for the question?

Grace. I move the amendment be post­poned indefinitely.

President. The motion is out of order. An amendment cannot be postponed. Every amendment may be amended.

Amendments of an original mo­tion are called primary or first-degree amendments.

Amendments to amendments are called secondary amendments. Every amendment of the first degree can be amended.

While an amendment to an amendment is before the House, discussion must be confined to it; but may include the amendment and the main motion, so far as a discussion of the amendment involves a discussion of the amendment and the motion. If a motion is made and recorded to amend an amendment, the vote should be put in the following order:

(1) The amendment to the amendment.

(2) The amendment as amended.

(3) The motion as amended.

When the motion to amend the amendment is lost, the vote should be in the following order:

(1) The amendment to the amendment (lost).

(2) The amendment as originally stat­ed (lost). (3) The original motion.

When a member wishes to get a motion with its amendment and amendment to an amendment out of the way without further debate or amendment, he may do so by moving the previous question unlimited. This forces immediate vote on—

(1) The amendment to the amendment.

(2) The amendment or the amend­ment as amended.

(3) The original motion or the original motion as amended.

A previous question cannot be moved in such a form as to pass over the amendments and cause an imme­diate vote on the motion. The amend­ment to the amendment must be voted on first.

Problem 4

This problem includes practice in the reconsideration of a motion, amending by striking out and insert­ing, and point of order.

A motion already voted on cannot be amended, discussed, etc., unless again brought before the House. The only way to do this is to reconsider.

When voting is by acclamation, a motion to reconsider must be made by a member who voted on the win­ning side. Reconsideration is debat­able if the original motion is debat­able, otherwise not. To reconsider requires a majority vote only.

When a motion to reconsider is carried, the question is brought before the House in the same position it was before it was first voted on.

The motion to reconsider sus­pends all action regarding the original motion until the motion to reconsider is disposed of. EXAMPLE. The following motion has been passed by the group: “That cigarettes should not be sold to minors.”

Helen. I move to amend the motion by striking out the words “to minors.”

President. The Chair rules the motion out of order. The motion cannot be amended unless reconsidered.

John. I move to reconsider the vote.

Grace. I rise to a parliamentary inquiry.

President. State the question.

Grace. May a person who voted in the minority move to reconsider?

President. No. Will John please state which side he voted on?

John. I voted on the negative.

President. Then the motion is out of order.

Bill. I voted in the affirmative, but since there is dissatisfaction, I move to reconsider the motion.

Grace. I second the motion.

President. The motion to reconsider has been moved and seconded. Is there any discussion?

Jim. (Starts to speak against the motion.)

Helen. I rise to ask a question. (Parlia­mentary inquiry.)

President. State the question.

Helen. Has a member a right to debate the motion while the motion to recon­sider is before the assembly?

President. He has, since the motion itself is debatable. (Allow members, to dis­cuss all they wish to, then put motion to vote.) The motion to reconsider the motion just passed is before us. All in favor of reconsideration say aye; all opposed, no. Motion carried. The question is now before the House that cigarettes should not be sold to mi­nors. It is open to debate, amendment, or vote.

A third form of amendment is striking out a certain word or words, and inserting others in the exact place where the first were struck out.

To “strike out and insert” is one motion and must be debated, amend­ed, or voted on as such. To strike out and insert cannot be divided, and words struck out must be consecutive words. Words inserted also must be consecutive.

EXAMPLE. A motion is made that immigration should be prohibited.

Jim. I move to amend by striking out the word “prohibited” and inserting “regu­lated by a national board.”

It should be possible to carry out the drill on this or any other question in the same manner as in previous lessons. Try to get as many examples of points brought out in former les­sons as possible.

A point of order is rather an inter­esting feature of parliamentary law. It is used to prevent or to rectify a violation of the rules.

A point of order can be raised at any time when business is being con­sidered.

A member can raise a point of order while another has the floor.

Before stating a point of order, a member should rise and say, “Mr. President, I rise to a point of order,” without waiting for recognition from the Chair.

A point of order does not re­quire a second, cannot be debated or amended, and must be settled at once. The President may decide the point, refer it to a member, or to a vote of the group. If in doubt, either use parliamentary inquiry, or keep still. Do not use this method too freely. Be sure you are right before you speak.

Appendix

30 Contest Preamble

4-H offers many opportunities to be in­volved in educational events and activities. For example, members can choose to be involved in camps, project meetings, club meetings, spe­cial interest groups, festivals, fairs and contests. Participation in contests is one way that 4-H members can develop the following life skills:

  • Fostering positive self-concept
  • Learning decision-making and responsi­bilities for choices
  • Developing an inquiring mind
  • Relating to self and others
  • Acquiring a concern for communities—local and global

Some 4-H events and activities involve peer competition. Competition is an opportunity for work or performance to be evaluated against the work of others by a designated person who brings his or her own perspective and training to the event.

The results of contests provide a measur­ing tool to help make improvements in future endeavors. Contests also designate a higher achievement and lower achievement. It is im­portant for you to recognize this reality before entering a contest. It is also critical that you learn how to gracefully accept winning as well as losing. Both are equally valuable learning experiences.

Everyone who participates in a contest is a winner because you’ve taken a risk by asking for another person’s informed opinion about the quality of your effort. Regardless of the final determination or ribbon placing, those who participate in 4-H contests learn how to find information, organize ideas, put theory into practice, develop skills in communicating, and have fun interacting with other young people, leaders, and adults.

Contests and other competitive events are only one way to evaluate growth and development. There are also many other ways to evaluate progress. 4-H members themselves can continually evaluate their own work. This self-evaluation is a real “learning by doing” process.

Footnotes, Rules for Handing Motions, previous pages

1A tied vote is always lost except on a motion to appeal from the decision of the chair (see “Inci­dental Motions”) when a tied vote sustains the decision of the chair.

2Subsidiary motions are motions that pertain to a main motion while it is pending.

3Most incidental motions arise out of another question that is pending and must be decided before the question out of which they arise is decided

4The chair opens nominations with “Nominations are now in order.” Nominations may be made by a nominating committee, by a nominating ballot or from the floor. A member may make a motion to close nominations or the chair may declare nominations closed after assembly has been given a chance to make nominations.

5The mover may request to withdraw or modify his motion without consent of anyone before the motion has been put to assembly for con­sideration. When motion is before the assembly and if there is no objection from anyone in the assembly, the chairman announces that the motion is withdrawn or modified. If anyone objects, the request is put to a vote.

6A member may interrupt the speaker who has the floor to rise to a point or order or appeal, call for orders of the day, or raise a question of privilege.

7 Orders of the day may be changed by a motion to suspend the rules (See “Incidental Motions.”)

8Motion can be taken from the table during the meeting when it was tabled or at the next meeting.

9Motion to reconsider may be made only by one who voted on the prevailing side. A motion to reconsider must be made during the meeting when it was decided or on the next succeeding day of the same sessions.

10 It is impossible to rescind any action that has been taken as a result of a motion, but the unexecuted part may be rescinded. Notice must be given on a meeting before the vote is taken or if voted on immediately, a 2/3 vote to rescind is necessary.

31 Gavel Games

Former 4-H members who are now adults have consistently identi­fied their knowledge of parliamentary procedure as one of the lasting skills developed from their 4-H experi­ence. Consequently, this is a skill that we would like to preserve in our 4-H programming.

In the Gavel Games Contest, the contestants are teams of four 4-H members from a club who act as of­ficers for a model 4-H business meet­ing. In the senior division, these four team members are not told which of the four officers—President, Vice-President, Secretary or Treasurer—they will serve as until they enter the contest room. Consequently, it is im­portant to practice for all four offices.

If a club has five members they may all participate. The individual drawing “alternate” should only par­ticipate in the roll call, voting and discussion portions of the team’s presentation. In the intermediate divi­sion, a team of five can designate an alternate, before the other four team members draw for office. In the junior division, all offices can be assigned before the competition.

If your club has only six or seven interested members and cannot make two teams, one or two members from another team may be allowed to compete twice so that everyone has an opportunity to compete on a team. Each team presents a model busi­ness meeting starting with the call to order, including reports of officers and committees, unfinished and new busi­ness, and ending with adjournment. Teams will be allowed to use only the information sheets listed on the at­tached page.

Each individual team receives a score on the oral presentation. Con­ference judging is used to make the contest a more meaningful experi­ence. Teams will receive a written score sheet from the judge after the contest.

Age divisions for the Gavel games contest will be as follows: Junior, ages 9-10; Intermediate, ages 11-13; and Senior, age 14 and older. If a team is comprised of mixed ages, it will be considered in the category of compe­tition which the oldest team member would be categorized.

The gavel is a symbol of author­ity. The gavel is used by the person presiding to keep the meeting run­ning smoothly and orderly. To use the gavel properly, the presiding officer should stand squarely and firmly on both feet. Her or she should grasp the handle of the gavel firmly and rap table or gavel block authoritatively with well-spaced raps. The gavel is used to:

  1. Call the meeting to order—one tap
  2. Maintain order—several taps
  3. Adjourn the meeting—one tap
  4. Signify that motions have either passed or failed—one tap

32 SCORE CARD - GAVEL GAME

NAME OF CLUB:_______________________________

Please check: _______ Senior Team

_______ Intermediate Team

_______ Junior Team

Team Members’ Names Age Office Held (by drawing)

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________(Alternate) _______

  1. ORAL PRESENTATION
  2. Overall Presentation
  3. Pronunciation, Articulation and Volume (20 pts.)______
  4. Attitude, Naturalness and Ease of Presentation (20 pts.)______
  5. Appearance of Members and Presentation Area (10 pts.)______

(Sub-Total Possible 50 pts.)_______

  1. Presidents’ use of Gavel (5 pts.)_____
  2. Call to Order (5 pts.)_____
  3. Opening Exercise -Pledge or Motto & Roll Call (5 pts.)_____
  4. Reading of the Minutes (5 pts.)_____
  5. Communications (5 pts.)_____
  6. Treasurer’s Report (5 pts.)_____
  7. Committee Reports (5 pts.)_____
  8. Program (5 pts.)_____
  9. Announcements (5 pts.)_____
  10. Adjournment (5 pts.)_____

Sub-total: ___________

(Sub-total Possible 50 pts.)

33 L. Unfinished or New Business (Points determined by Parliamentary Procedure—See Scoring Procedure, below)

Scoring for Parliamentary Procedure

For each required parliamentary procedure problem introduced correctly, 15 points will be awarded.

In the handling of each different parliamentary procedure problem, 5 points will be deducted for each incorrect procedure up to a maximum of 15 points. No points will be earned or lost if a parliamentary procedure problem is introduced in the incorrect man­ner.

Done Needs Comments Points

PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE: Correctly Work

  1. Main Motion _______________________________________________
  2. Table a Motion_____________________________________________
  3. Amend a Motion____________________________________________
  4. Division of the House_________________________________________
  5. Take from the Table__________________________________________
  6. Division of the Question_______________________________________
  7. Refer to a Committee_________________________________________
  8. Rise to a Point of Order
  9. Withdraw a Motion__________________________________________
  10. Appeal the Decision of Chair ___________________________________
  11. Call for Previous Question______________________________________
  12. Rescind a Motion___________________________________________
  13. Reconsider a Motion_________________________________________
  14. Postpone a Motion Definitely___________________________________
  15. Introduce a Resolution________________________________________
  16. Reconsider & Have Entry in Min. _________________________________
  17. Postpone a Motion Indefinitely__________________________________
  18. Object to Consideration of Question_______________________________

Quality of Overall Discussion______(15 pts) Page 2 Sub-Total: ____________(135 pts)

Page 1 Sub-Total:___________(100 pts)

Grand Total:_____________(250 pts)

Requirements:

Juniors - Procedures 1-3 Intermediates - Procedures 1-6

Seniors - Procedures 1-6 plus an additional three. One of the three will be drawn for on the day of the contest.

Rules Pertaining to the Parliamentary Procedure Contest

(A) This contest will consist of teams of four (or five with an alternate) 4-H members: the president, the vice-president, program chairman, the secretary and the treasurer. Please refer to the score card for this contest to determine the scoring and point allocation system used.

(B) The order of business for the oral presentation is as follows:

1) Call to order

2) Opening exercise

  1. a) pledge or motto
  2. b) roll call

3) Reading of minutes, corrections if needed, approval of minutes

  1. a) the secretary should announce that there are no minutes due to the fact that this is a special parliamentary procedure presentation

4) Communications not requiring action—letters of appreciation, etc.

  1. a) one letter of communication is to be read

5) Report of Officers

  1. a) treasurer’s report is the only officer’s report that is to be given

6) Report of standing or special committees

  1. a) only one standing or special committee report is to be given

7) Unfinished business

  1. a) motions postponed at the last meeting and motions laid on the table at the last meeting
  2. b) the president should ask for unfinished business; however, it is recommended that all parlia­mentary problems be transacted during new business

8) New business as introduced

  1. a) refer to the “Approved list of Parliamentary Procedure Problems for the Parliamentary Proce­dure Contest”

9) Program

  1. a) the program chairman should announce that there is no program due to the fact that this is a special parliamentary procedure presentation

10) Announcements

  1. a) one announcement is to be given

11) Adjournment

  1. C) Three division levels will be held as follows: Junior, 9-10 years; Intermediate 11-13 years; and Senior, 14 and older. Each division will have a different score with the higher scores in the more advanced divisions.
  2. D) The following information sheets are the only notes that can be used during the oral presenta­tion of this contest.

1) Sheet entitled — Rules Pertaining to the Parliamentary Procedure Contest

2) Sheet entitled — Approved List of Parliamentary Procedure Problems for the 4-H Parliamentary Procedure Contest

3) Secretary’s letter of communication

4) Treasurer’s written report of the club’s financial state

5) Sheet pertaining to the standing or special committee report

  1. E) Each team will be allowed a maximum of 20 minutes to give their oral presentation.

Approved list of parliamentary procedure problems

for the parliamentary procedure contest

  1. Put a motion before the house
  2. Lay a motion on the table
  3. Amend a motion
  4. Call for a division of the house
  5. Take a motion from the table
  6. Call for a division of the question
  7. Refer a motion to a committee
  8. Rise to a point of order
  9. Withdraw a motion
  10. Appeal the decision of the chair
  11. Call for the previous question
  12. Rescind a motion
  13. Reconsider a motion
  14. Postpone a motion definitely
  15. Introduce a resolution
  16. Reconsider and have entered on the minutes
  17. Postpone a motion indefinitely
  18. Object to the consideration of the question

NOTE: Juniors are required to do the first three problems on the list; intermediates, the first six; and seniors are required to do the first six plus three additional problems, one of which will be drawn for on the day of the contest. Any age level can demon­strate any additional parliamentary skills they so desire.

For questions, refer to The Meeting Will Come to Order (#NCR228) available through your county Extension office.

Intermediate Gavel Game Quiz

Instructions: Fill in the correct response to these questions from the answers listed below. (Some answers can be used more than once.) (2 points each)

_____1. What is the correct form of introducing a main motion?

_____2. What is a quorum?

_____3. Are all main motions debatable?

_____4. Must one rise to second a motion?

_____5. How do you address the Chair?

_____6. What should the Chair say after stating the motion?

_____7. What is the best form in taking a vote by acclamation?

_____8. What is a main or principal motion?

_____9. What must be said following all main motions so that the item of business may be considered?

  1. Rise and say “Madam” or “Mister President”.
  2. “All in favor say aye; opposed no.”
  3. One that introduces business.
  4. The minimum of members who must be present to transact business.
  5. “I make a motion..
  6. “I second that.”
  7. By calling his/her first name.
  8. “I move that...”
  9. “Is there any discussion?”
  10. Yes
  11. No

Instructions: Draw a line from each pair of words in Column A to the correct descrip­tion of them in Column B. (1 point each)

Column A Column B

The House Another term for a motion.

The Chair More than half the votes cast.

The Floor The organization, the club.

The Question By virtue of or because of an office.

The Majority The presiding officer.

The Quorum Exclusive right to be heard at that time.

Ex Officio Numbers competent to transact business.

Senior Gavel Game Quiz

The following is a list of procedures and requirements. Please mark to the side of the procedures four requirements that must be made to properly use each procedure in a meeting. (1 point per blank)

Procedures:

����������������Amending the Main Motion - To change the motion to make it more satisfactory to the group.

����������������To Reconsider - To bring an item of business back before the group for discussion and another vote.

����������������Point of Order - To enforce the rules.

����������������Division of the Question - To avoid voting on too many questions at one time.

����������������To Take From the Table - To bring the question be­fore the club again.

Requirements:

  1. It requires a second. F. It may not be amended.
  2. It does not require a second. G. It may be reconsidered.
  3. It is debatable. H. It may not be reconsidered.
  4. It is not debatable. I. It requires a majority vote.
  5. It may be amended. J. It requires a two-thirds vote.

Instructions: Please arrange the following items in order according to the 4-H Order of Business. Number them 1 through 11. (1 point per blank)

______ Program

______ Roll Call

______ Call to Order

______ Unfinished or Old Business

______ Adjournment

______ Announcements

______ Reports of Officers

______ New Business

______ Communications (no action taken, letters, etc.)

______ Reading/Approval of Minutes

______ Report of Standing and Special Committees

38 Senior Gavel Game Quiz - continued

Write “true” in the blank provided if the statement is true; write “false” in the blank provided if the statement is false. (2 points each)

_______1. A member may vote against his/her own motion.

_______2. Under the duties of the presiding officer, the Chair may not vote.

_______3. One must rise and address the Chair to obtain the floor.

_______4. The purpose of the motion to lay on the table is to bring an item of business back before the group for discussion and another vote.

_______5. To move the previous question is to stop debate and order an imme­diate vote on a question.

_______6. Calling for a division of the house means that a member desires to take a more accurate vote count.

_______7. If a quorum is not present, then the meeting will not be adjourned and official business will be transacted.

_______8. Referring an object to a committee will allow further investigation by a smaller group for the entire group to consider later.

_______9. To rescind or repeal is to reconsider the vote upon a motion, not cancelling the action formerly taken upon it.

Gavel Games Answers

39 Intermediate Gavel Game Quiz

H �������������1. What is the correct form of introducing a main motion?

D �������������2. What is a quorum?

J �����������������3. Are all main motions debatable?

K ��������������4. Must one rise to second a motion?

A �������������5. How do you address the Chair?

I �����������������6. What should the Chair say after stat­ing the motion?

B ��������������7. What is the best form in taking a vote by acclamation?

C ��������������8. What is a main or principal motion?

F ���������������9. What must be said following all main motions so that the item of business may be considered?

Column A...............................Column B

The House ���������������������������The organization, the club.

The Chair. �������������������������������The presiding officer.

The Floor �������������������������������Exclusive right to be heard at that time

The Question �������������������Another term for a motion.

The Majority ���������������������More than half the votes cast.

The Quorum ���������������������Numbers competent to transact business

Ex Officio �������������������������������By virtue of or because of an office

Senior Gavel Game Quiz

Procedures:

A, C, E, I, G Amending the Main Motion - To change the motion to make it more satisfac­tory to the group.

A, C, F, H, I To Reconsider - To bring an item of business back before the group for discussion and another vote.

B, D, F, H Point of Order - To enforce the rules.

B, D, H, I Division of the Question - To avoid voting on too many questions at one time.

A, D, F, H, I To Take From the Table - To bring the question before the club again.

Arrange in order:

9 Program

2 Roll Call

1 Call to Order

7 Unfinished or Old Business

11 Adjournment

10 Announcements

5 Reports of Officers

8 New Business

4 Communications (no action taken, letters, etc.)

3 Reading/Approval of Minutes

6 Report of Standing and Special Commit­tees

Senior Gavel Game Quiz - page 2

False____1. A member may vote against his/her own motion.

False_____2. Under the duties of the pre­siding officer, the Chair may not vote.

True_____3. One must rise and address the Chair to obtain the floor.

False____4. The purpose of the motion to lay on the table is to bring an item of busi­ness back before the group for discussion and another vote.

False_____5. To move the previous ques­tion is to stop debate and order an immediate vote on a question.

True_____6. Calling for a division of the house means that a member desires to take a more accurate vote count.

False____7. If a quorum is not present, then the meeting will not be adjourned and of­ficial business will be transacted.

True_____8. Referring an issue to a com­mittee will allow further investigation by a smaller group for the entire group to consider later.

False____9. To rescind or repeal is to re­consider the vote upon a motion, not cancelling the action formerly taken upon it.

4-H and Life Skills Development

Youth development is a process of mental, physi­cal and social growth during which young people prepare to live a productive and satisfying life. Youth development experiences of high quality don’t just happen. The best ones are carefully planned (1) to encourage life skill development while delivering subject matter content and (2) to achieve specific outcomes.

A skills is a learned ability to do something well. Life skills are skills that help an individual to be suc­cessful in living a productive and fulfilling life. The Targeting Life Skills Model categorizes life skills on the basis of the four “H’s” that represent Head, Heart, Hands and Health. Two general categories of skills are included under each of the four headings:

HEAD: thinking and managing

HEART: relating and caring

HANDS: working and giving

HEALTH: being and living

In each of the general categories, a number of important life skills have been identified as you can tell from looking at the TLS model below.

What is 4-H?

4-H is a part of the Montana State University Extension Service cooperating with the U.S. Depart­ment of Agriculture and your local county govern­ment. 4-H members are those boys and girls who participate in Extension-sponsored educational pro­grams which are open to all youth regardless of race, creed, color, sex, handicap or national origin.

The goal of Montana 4-H is to educate youth and adults for living in a global and ever-changing world by using the resources of Land-Grant Universities and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Montana 4-H uses educational, learning-by-doing projects, club meetings, community service projects, events, and activities for young people and adults as they work toward attaining these five LIFE SKILLS:

  • Fostering positive self-concept
  • Learning decision-making and

responsibility for choices

  • Developing an inquiring mind
  • Relating to self and others
  • Acquiring a concern for communities —local and global

The emblem of the 4-H program is a green four-leaf clover with a white “H” in each leaf. The four “H’s” stand for Head, Heart, Hands and Health and represent ways to develop the five life skills.

HEAD: Learning to think, make decisions, un­derstand the “whys,” gain new and valuable insights and knowledge.

HEART: Being concerned with the welfare of others, accepting the responsibilities of citizenship in our local and global communities, determining values and attitudes by which to live and learning how to work with others.

HANDS: Learning new skills, improving skills already developed, instilling pride in work and re­spect for work accomplished.

HEALTH: Practicing healthful living, protecting the well-being of self and others and making con­structive use of leisure time.

This four-fold development is vital to every indi­vidual. All four of the “H’s” should be an important part of the goals youngsters identify as they partici­pate in 4-H sponsored programs and educational activities.

The programs of the Montana State University Extension Service are available to all people, regardless of race, creed, color, sex, disibility or national origin. Issued in furtherance of cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Depart­ment of Agriculture, Douglas L. Steel, Vice Provost and Director, Extension Service, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717

We encourage the use of this document for non-profit educational purposes. This document may be reprinted if no endorsement of a commercial product, service or company is stated or implied, and if appropriate credit is given to the author and the MSU Extension Service (or Experiment Station). To use these documents in electronic formats, permission must be sought from the Ag/Extension Communications Coordinator, Communications Services, 115 Culbertson Hall, Montana State University-Bozeman, Bozeman, MT 59717; (406) 994-2721; E-mail - publications@Montana.edu.

Printable version of Year-end Financial Summary Form (PDF)

Year-end Financial Summary

Year-end Financial Summary Report

4-H Clubs, Committees and Councils need to complete and return this report to the County Extension Office at the end of the 4-H year for the year just completed. The 4-H fiscal year is from Oct. 1 to Sept. 30

Name of 4-H Group/Club:

09/ Treasurers Name:

4-H Year: 10/

County: Club Leaders Name: EIN #:

Bank Account is at (name of Bank)

Bank Address: Bank Account is at (name of Bank)

Bank Address:

(A) *Checking Account

(B) **SavingsAccount

Starting Balance (on October 1)

Starting Balance on October 1 Total Income/Deposits (+)

Total Income/Deposits (+) Total Expenses/Withdrawal (-)

Total Expenses/Withdrawal (-)

Ending Balance (on September 30) Ending Balance (on September 30)

Ending Balance (A) + Ending Balance (B) X .01 (***1%)

* Add the totals of all checking accounts under the EIN together for this section.**This section includes savings accounts, CD's or other investments under the EIN.

***1% Assessment Fee for 4-H groups that are under the Montana 4-H GEN Make check payable your county office.

The check book is in the possession of Cash on Hand $

Cash is in the possession of Signatories on the account are (must be 2) Signatory 1

Signatory 2

I certify that the above balances are a correct summary of receipts and expenses of the club, committee or council that I am treasurer of:

Treasurer’s Signature: Date:

Yearly Financial Review Certificate

We the Financial Review Committee, are from different families and are not signatories on the accounts for this club, committee or council. We certify that we have reviewed the Treasurer's book and bank accounts of the above group and found them to be correct to the best of our knowledge.

Signature:

Date:

Signature:

Date:

Date the 990 for this EIN was filed for the above 4-H year? (attach a copy of the confirmation from IRS)

The Montana State University Extension Service is an ADA/EO/AA/Veteran’s Preference Employer and Provider of Educational Outreach.

Page 1 of 1 updated 9/2019 for accessibility

Printable version of 4-H Club Annual Program Plan (PDF)

4-H Club Annual Program Plan

Yearly 4‐H Club Program Plan

Circular 237 Revised September 1991

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Montana State University Extension Service prohibit discrimination in all of their programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender,

religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital and family status. Issued in furtherance of cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, acts of May 8 and June 30,

1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Douglas L. Steele, Vice Provost and Director, Extension Service, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717.

Club: ________________________________________

County:______________________________________ 4‐H Year: __________________________

Program Planning in Your 4‐H Club

A Good Program Should

􀀹 Start with the interest of members

􀀹 Have a variety of subjects and methods

􀀹 Include educational information

􀀹 Provide for fellowship

􀀹 Get members doing things

􀀹 Add something to each person’s life

Planning Ahead Helps Us To… 􀀹 Have better club meetings

􀀹 Know what’s going to happen

􀀹 Have time for each member to prepare when he or she is on the

program

􀀹 Avoid other local meetings and events

􀀹 Inform our parents about what we are doing

Who Plans? 􀀹 If the club is small, everyone helps.

􀀹 A committee for a large group

􀀹 Officers and leaders

􀀹 Parents will be interested in being present when planning is done

The Club Year 􀀹 Runs from October 1 to September 30.

􀀹 Includes an annual meeting in October or November

􀀹 Starts with election of officers

Regular Meetings 􀀹 Usually contain three parts:

Business…………….10‐30 minutes

Educational……...….20‐60 minutes

Recreation…………..10‐30 minutes

The Program Chairman 􀀹 Reminds members who are to appear on the program for a

specific meeting

􀀹 Announces the numbers

􀀹 Announces plans for the next meeting

Send on copy of your completed plan to your County Extension

Office no later than January 1. The club leader, seceratary and

program chairman should have a copy. If desired, each family may

also have a copy of this circular.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Montana State University Extension Service prohibit discrimination in all of their programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender,

religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital and family status. Issued in furtherance of cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, acts of May 8 and June 30,

1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Douglas L. Steele, Vice Provost and Director, Extension Service, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717.

Goals

Goals are the things 4‐H club members and leaders decide they want to do during the coming year. As club

members gain experience, they usually add to the list of goals.

Some examples could include: develop greater family participation; make every 4‐H’er feel important in the

club; participate in community functions.

Other goals might include plans for activities, publicity, improving club meetings, member participation, member

recruitment, etc.

Goals for our club:

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

Projects Provide Program Material

In a new club with first year members, all members should take only one project and if possible the same one.

Of there are both boys and girls in the club, two projects could be make available, but each member should be

limited to one. This makes it possible for the educational part of the program to provide help for the members,

and for the leaders to help all the members ay once. Information on record journals, demonstrations, judging,

etc. is much more meaningful when members are learning about the same project.

In an established club where many members have had several years’ experience, and carry several projects,

program planning becomes more difficult.

One suggestion is to make a list of members down one side of a sheet of paper. List projects across the top and

check each member’s projects. Total all columns to see how many members are taking each project. Maybe

plans can be made so foods members in the club are responsible for the educational part of one meeting,

livestock members another, etc. until all projects have been worked into the program.

Work Meetings are recommended for all clubs whether there is only one project or many. At a work meeting,

the entire time is spent on the project work and members can get individual help if needed. Usually a work

meeting is devoted to only one project.

Reprinted June 1995 ‐5117

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Montana State University Extension Service prohibit discrimination in all of their programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender,

religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital and family status. Issued in furtherance of cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics, acts of May 8 and June 30,

1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Douglas L. Steele, Vice Provost and Director, Extension Service, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717.

Program Plan Club ___________________________________________________

4‐H Year_________________ Leaders ________________________________________________

Date and Time Location or Host Family Roll Call Program Plans

additional copies of this plan are available for each family

Plan for Work Meetings Club ____________________________________________

Date and Time Place or Host Family Project and Plans for Meeting Person in Charge

Reminder to Leaders: It is important for every member to have the experience of serving on a committee,

helping to plan a group program, learning how a group functions, assuming responsibilities, and learning the

concept of helping others.

Other Information for Parents: ________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Special Events

List special events which your club is planning to have. A beginners’ club might select only one

special event such as something special for parents.

Event Date Committee in Charge

County Events

List county events in which your club plans to take part.

Event Date Committee in Charge